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Transcript of Holocaust
His job was to spy on, what later became the Nazis, a political party called the German Workers' Party,
In Janurary , 1933 , Hitler was appointed chancellor, or leader of Germany. The Holocaust By: Hannah Snell & Jordyn Harvell After World War I, Germany fell into a social and economic depression. Unemployment rose , inflation made currency worthless, and a new German government called the Weimar Republic was struggling to maintain democracy. Hitler and the Nazis' used fear and violence to scare and manipulate Germans and take complete control of the government. When Adolf Hitler came into power in Germany, he quickly unleashed a frightening campaign of persecution against the Jewish people of Europe. In March 1933, the first concentration camp was opened for the 'political dissenters' opened in Dachau.
Anyone who the government considered an opponent or enemy was arrested, taken to a concentration camp, beaten, or killed.
The Weimar Republic was dead. Hitler was now in complete control. The Nazis usually Imprisoned Jews, but there were also, Gypsies, Communists and Homosexuals.
Each Prisonor had an ID number, they got it when they arrived at their first camp, At some camps it was tattooed in their arm, others it was on their uniform. Prisoners only had two meals a day, They were given soup in the morning and bread made with sawdust at night. They were shaved and given lice disinfectant once a month. Concentration camps had no grass, If there was any grass, the prisoners would have eaten it. Dysentery and Typhus were common diseases at concentration camps. When they arrived at camp, they were separated-healthy men(sometimes women, but not usually) were sent to one side, and the women children and men who could not work to the other and were later sent to death camps.
There were about 20,000 camps all throughout Germany and Poland Interesting Facts : January 30th,1933
Hitler became leader of Germany. March 22nd, 1933
The first Concentration camp was opened April 1st, 1933
Jewish shops boycotted November 24th, 1933
'Undesirables' sent to concentration camps. May 17th, 1934
Jewish people were prohibited from having health insurance. September 15th, 1935
Laws were designed to take away Jewish citizenship.
These laws were the Nuremberg Laws. These laws were :
Jews are no longer allowed to be German citizens.
Jews cannot marry non-Jews.
Jews cannot have sexual relations with non-Jews. March 13th 1938
Jews in Austria were persecuted and victimised. July 8th, 1938The Jewish synagogue in Munich was destroyed. October 5th ,1938
The passports of all Austrian and German jews had to be stamped with a large letter 'J'. November 9th , 1938
Approximately 100 Jews were murdered, 20,000 German and Austrian Jews arrested and sent to camps, Hundreds of synagogues burned, and the Windows of Jewish shops all over Germany and Austria smashed. November 12th, 1938
Jews were made to pay one billion marks for the damage caused by Kristallnacht. November 15th , 1938
Jewish Children were expelled from school. October 12th, 1939
Jews living in Austria and Czechoslovakia were sent to Poland November 23rd , 1939
Jews in Poland were forced to sew a yellow star onto their clothes so that they could be easily identified. Early 1940
European Jews persecuted November 15th, 1940
The Warsaw Ghetto was sealed off. There were around 400,000 Jewish people inside July 1941
The Einsatzgruppen (killing squads) began rounding up and murdering Jews in Russia. 33,000 Jews are murdered in two days at Babi Yar near Kiev. July 31st, 1941
'Final Solution' was launched. December 8th, 1941
The first 'Death Camp' was opened at Chelmno. January 1942
Mass-gassing of Jews began at Auschwitz-Birkenau Summer 1942
Jews from all over occupied Europe were sent to 'Death Camps' January 29th, 1943
An order was issued for gypsies to be sent to concentration camps. 19th April - 16th May 1943
An order was issued to empty the Warsaw Ghetto and deport the inmates to Treblinka. Late 1943
With the Russians advancing from the East, many 'Death Camps' were closed and evidence destroyed. 14th May - 8th July 1944
440,000 Hungarian Jews were transported to Auschwitz October 30th, 1944
The gas chambers at Auschwitz were used for the last time January 27th, 1945
Many remaining camps were closed and evidence of their existence destroyed. Those who had survived the camps so far were taken on forced 'Death Marches'. April 30th, 1945
Faced with impending defeat, Hitler committed suicide May 7th, 1945
Germany surrendered and the war in Europe was over November 20th, 1945
Surviving Nazi leaders were put on trial at Nuremberg Following the deportation of some Warsaw Jews, news leaked back to those remaining in the Ghetto of mass killings. A group of about 750 mainly young people decided that they had nothing to lose by resisting deportation. Using weapons smuggled into the Ghetto they fired on German troops who tried to round up inmates for deportation. They held out for nearly a month before they were taken by the Nazis and shot or sent to death camps. 1933 1938 1940 1941 1943 1945 Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, Austria-Hungry to Alois Hitler and Klara Polzl.
His father, a custom official by profession, was tremendously violent to his wife and son. He beat them often. The regular whipping and violence committed by his father made him extremely sympathetic to his mother. In spite of his father’s constant pressure to pursue a career like his, Hitler dropped out of high school without a diploma, as a revolt against his father. Even after his father’s death on January 3, 1903, he didn't like school. He wanted to be an artist. Childhood Early Life Hitler's mother died when he was 18. Some say that is why he planned the mass killing that he did.
She was diagnosed with breast cancer and was being treated by a Jewish doctor that worked with the poor. She underwent an excruciating painful surgery. She died on December 21, 1907.
Its said he blamed the doctor for her death. Hitler , Are you mad ? Hitler was arrested in November, 1923 because the Nazis attempted to overthrow the German government by capturing several Bavarian officials. He was convicted for treason and sent to prison. He served 9 months. During this time, he wrote out his plan for future Germany in his book (my struggle) Mein Kampf Prison Concentration Camp in Dachau Dachau, the first Nazi concentration camp, opened in 1933. Located in southern Germany. Dachau initially housed political prisoners. However, it eventually evolved into a death camp where thousands of Jews died from malnutrition, disease and overwork or were executed. The camp's prisoners included members of other groups Hitler considered unfit for the new Germany. This group included artists, intellectuals, the physically and mentally handicapped and homosexuals. Dachau prisoners were used as slave labor to manufacture weapons and other materials for Germany's war efforts. Additionally, some Dachau detainees were subjected to brutal medical experiments by the Nazis. Auschwitz Auschwitz, one of the five "death camps" constructed by the Nazis, was the most streamlined mass killing center ever created. Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, criminals, and prisoners of war were gathered, stuffed into cattle cars on trains, and sent to Auschwitz. When the trains stopped at Auschwitz , the newly arrived were told to leave all their belongings on board and were then forced to depart from the train and gather upon the railway platform, known as "the ramp." Families, who had arrived together, were quickly and brutally split up as an SS officer, usually a Nazi doctor, ordered each individual into one of two lines. Most women, children, older men, and those that looked unfit or unhealthy were sent to the left. While most young men and others that looked strong enough to do hard labor were sent to the right. The left line meant immediate death at the gas chambers and the right meant that they would become a prisoner of the camp. Nazis Nazi Germany was a 'totalitarian' state, meaning that the Nazi government recognized no ends to their authority, would restrict public and private life whenever possible, and would create personality cults whenever possible through propaganda and media.
Hitler used the Swastika as the Nazi symbol as a 'symbol of our struggle'. In his book, Hitler wrote, "In red we see the social idea of the movement, in white the nationalistic idea, in the swastika the mission of the struggle for the victory of the Aryan man, and, by the same token, the victory of the idea of creative work, which as such always has been and always will be anti-Semitic."
The Swastika was originally meant to symbolise strength, power, sun and good luck, but now is seen as a symbol of hate, Anti-Semitism, prejudice, violence and death. Hitler Youth Hitler Youth or HJ was a boys organization. School schedules were adjusted so that challenging physical fitness courses, and courses that emphasized the Nazi themes of racial struggle and German pride , could be added. Biology was eventually removed from the ciriculum. Children were even encouraged to report family or neighbors who spoke their mind about the Nazi regime. Walter Hess, a member of HJ , was called a hero when he turned in his father for calling Hitler a crazed maniac. His father was taken to Dachau. Race Laws Jews have no certain characteristics so Hitler made laws that basically declared 'Once a Jew , Always a Jew' . This meant , even if a jew had completely converted , and was a priest or nun, They were still considered a jew. The Night Of Broken Glass Kristallnacht (The night of broken glass) was a devastating event that happened to the Jewish community. 7,500 homes were invaded and 267 synagogues were vandalized or destroyed by fire. Over 30,000 jews were taken to concentration camps and 36 were killed. "I have a very difficult time, and I have to admit it: I cannot...I cannot forgive. I cannot forgive, and I do blame...I blame the German people a great deal because I felt that they were passive, they turned away, they have the audacity still today to say that they didn't know. I'm sorry. That's unacceptable...that's unacceptable...it can't possibly...how can you not smell. They had to. They have to. And until they own up to it, I'm sorry, I can't. " (http://www.holocaustsurvivors.org/data.show.php?di=record&da=recordings&ke=30) Jeannine Burk Jeannine Burk was born September 15th, 1939.
She hid in a womans house from the time she was 3 until she was 5. She never even knew her name. She had an older sister and a brother. They were separated. However , she and her siblings were safe. When nazis paraded the streets everyone had to watch. Jeannine had to hide in a shed during this time. Anti-Semitism Propaganda was used by Nazis to spread the hatred of Jews. This hatred towards Jews is known as anti-Semitism. It can take different forms - institutional, physical or verbal. During the early 1930s, when the nazis began to come into power, Germany was experiencing alot of economic and social hardship. The country had to pay enormous fees to the Allies because they lost WWI.
They could no longer have a large army and had to give up their land.
They experienced great economic instability and great unemployment. Hitler blamed the Jews for Germany's economic and social problems. The Nazi party promised to resolve these issues, and in 1932 won 37% of the vote. Hitler was very racist. In his eyes, there was a "master" race. He saw the Aryans as the future citizens of Germany , and all of Europe. Jewish populations were concentrated in eastern Europe, including Poland, the Soviet Union, Hungary, and Romania. Many of the Jews of eastern Europe lived in predominantly Jewish towns or villages, called shtetls. Eastern European Jews lived a separate life as a minority within the culture of the majority. They spoke their own language, Yiddish, which combines elements of German and Hebrew. They read Yiddish books, and attended Yiddish theater and movies. Although many younger Jews in larger towns were beginning to adopt modern ways and dress, older people often dressed traditionally, the men wearing hats or caps, and the women modestly covering their hair with wigs or kerchiefs. Jews could be found in all ways of life, as farmers, tailors, seamstresses, factory hands, accountants, doctors, teachers, and small-business owners. Some families were wealthy, but many more were poor. Many children ended their schooling early to work in a craft or trade; others looked forward to continuing their education at the university level. Still, whatever their differences, they were the same in one respect: by the 1930s, with the rise of the Nazis to power in Germany, they all became potential victims, and their lives were forever changed. Children were especially vulnerable in the era of the Holocaust. The Nazis advocated killing children of “unwanted” or “dangerous” groups in accordance with their ideological views, either as part of the “racial struggle” or as a measure of preventative security. The Germans and their collaborators killed as many as 1.5 million children, including over a million Jewish children and tens of thousands of Gypsi children, German children with physical and mental disabilities living in institutions, Polish children, and children residing in the occupied Soviet Union. The fate of Jewish and non-Jewish children can be categorized in the following ways: 1) children killed when they arrived in Death camps.
2) children killed immediately after birth or in institutions. 3) children born in ghettos and camps who survived because prisoners hid them.
4) children usually over 12, who were used as laborers and as subjects of medical experiments.
5) children killed during reprisal operations or so-called anti-partisan operations. The Nazis targeted women and men for persecution and eventually death. They targeted Jewish and non-jewish to horrible persecution that was sometimes unique to the gender of the victims. Nazis also targeted Gypsy women, Polish women, and women with disabilities living in institutions. There were even camps designed specifically for women. In May 1939, the SS opened Ravensbrück. Ravensbrück was the largest camp designed for females. Over 100,000 women had been taken to Ravensbrück when Soviet troops liberated the camp in 1945. Non-Jewish females were also vulnerable. Nazis committed mass murder of women at Auschwitz concentration camp. They also murdered females with disabilities in the T-4 and other euthanasia operations. Hildegard Kusserow was a Jehovah Witness. She was imprisoned for 4 years in many different places , including Ravensbrück Today there are many museums to represent the and sorrows of the people who suffered during this time period. There are pictures , statues ,and plaques to show the people of today their pain. Holocaust Museums "People started to pull out those barbed wires and jumped through those little windows. Even the SS people sat on the rooftop of the train and shot, but everybody took a chance. Whoever could, whoever it was possible to take a chance. Well, my father told us, when the young people started to jump, he said, "You the oldest three"--I was seventeen, and my sister sixteen, my brother fifteen--"You oldest try. Maybe somebody will survive, but we will stay here with the small children, because even if they go out they won't be able to survive." So the parents went with the small children. My sister . . . my brother jumped first, my sister second. Then I jumped, and I landed in a ditch of snow. They shot after us. They shot . . . they keep on shooting, but the bullet didn't hit me. When I didn't hear anymore the train, I got up. And the first thing I did, I took off my star, and I promised myself never again will I ever wear a star. I went first to look after my sister and brother and found them dead. And I found many corpses . . . many corpses. From that train one of my friends survived, too. She lives in New York. We were two people who survived that train, but many people jumped. Well, after that I survived under an assumed name, and I was caught to work in Germany as a Polish girl. And I worked on a farm, on a German farm, under a false name . . .pretended that I was Catholic and escaped until the end of the war." http://www.holocaustsurvivors.org/data.show.php?di=record&da=recordings&ke=17 Eva Galler Eva’s father Israel Vogel was a prosperous businessman. Eva’s mother Ita was from nearby Jozefow. The family was Orthodox. Eva was oldest of eight: Hana was fourteen in 1939; Pincus thirteen; Berko twelve; Molly ten; Dora eight; Gezel six; and Aariel one. In addition, Eva had six step-siblings: Isaac, Sala, Rebecca, Leo, Marcus, and Moses. Leo lived in New York City, where he sold his father’s products. Moses, with his bride, left for the United States immediately prior to the outbreak of war.
Eva was born on January 1, 1923, in the town of Oleszyce in southeastern Poland. Until the end of World War I, her region of Galicia was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. When that region became Polish after World War I, the Jews retained a sentimental attachment to former times under Kaiser Franz Josef, who was viewed as ‘a friend.’ Jews owned most of the stores on the market square. Poles and Ukrainians were farmers. The Orthodox Jewish cemetery in Oleszyce was established before 1767. The town was renowned in the Jewish world for religious ‘articles’ that were produced there. Eva’s father Israel Vogel was a prosperous businessman and a Solomon Radasky Solomon Radasky survived the Warsaw Ghetto and the Holocaust. He survived but he was the only survivor out of his family of 78 people. Solomon was shot in the foot and he had to eat rotten bread. After the horror of the Holocaust and the Warsaw Ghetto, he still managed to live a productive life. Solomon Radasky’s mother was killed the last week of January, 1941. While smuggling food with children, his father was shot in the back after an SD pointed him out to a German officer. One day a friend told Solomon that his sister was working in a shop three kilometers away and he didn’t know the way, so he got a German officer to take him for 500 zlotys, which was a lot of money. He never made it back. His sister was killed on the same day as his mother. After the American soldiers rescued him, Solomon moved to New Orleans, Louisiana. He couldn’t even speak English. He went to work at a fur shop and sewed for fifty cents an hour, even though the beginning wage was seventy-five cents. For fifty dollars, he bought a sewing machine and started to do what he did before the Holocaust and the Warsaw Ghetto. There were 375,000 Jews living in Warsaw before the war. There are only 5,000 living there today