Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

9º MODAL VERBS

No description
by

English La Quinta del Puente

on 20 February 2017

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of 9º MODAL VERBS

What is a modal verb?
Auxiliary verbs
Used before other verbs, in tags and short answers

PERMISSION
OBLIGATION
Must
and
have (got) to
both express necessity and obligation.
CERTAINTY
MUST/CAN'T
The Basics
The third person singular has no -s.
ABILITY
MODAL VERBS
MEANINGS:
1. CERTAINTY
used to say that a situation is certain, probable, possible, or impossible
2. OBLIGATION AND FREEDOM
used to tell or advise people (not) to do something, and to talk about freedom or ability to do things--important in instructions, requests, suggestions, and invitations
Examples:
You
must
be tired.
Emma
should
be home by now.
We
might
go to Russia in June.
It
can't
be true.
Examples:
Students
must
sign up today.
Would
you like to join us for a drink?
Can
I go now?
You
should
take a break.
Questions and negatives don't use "do".
Use infinitives without "to" after modals. (except for "ought")
Modals have no infinitives or participles. Instead, use be able to, have to, be allowed to.
Special past form used with a perfect infinitive.
It
must
be lunchtime.
NOT
It musts be...
Should
she go?
NOT
Does she should...?
You
must not
go to the party.
NOT
You do must...
I
can't sing
.
NOT
I can't to sing.
I want
to be able
to travel.
NOT
I want to can travel.
You
should have told
me.
Lucy
must have missed
her train.
Modals can be followed by all kinds of infinitives--perfect, progressive, and passive (all without "to").
I should
be working
.
The police must
be informed
.
This door must
not be opened
.
PROBABILITY AND POSSIBILITY
PERFECT INFINITIVES
HAD BETTER
BE SUPPOSED TO
WILLINGNESS
USED TO
NEED
Can
Use to talk about future actions that depend on present ability, circumstances, agreements, decisions, etc. In other cases, use
be able to
.
Often used with
see, hear, feel, taste, smell, understand,
and
remember
to give a progressive meaning.
I
can come and help
you tomorrow. (
present decision
)

The doctor says I
will be able to walk
properly in four weeks. (
NOT
The doctor says I
can walk
...)
I
can see
her coming down the street.
(
NOT
I'm seeing her...)

What's in the dessert? I
can taste
cinnamon.
Could
Use for general ability, to say somebody was able to do something at any time/when they wanted
Don't use to say someone did something on one occasion--use managed to, was/were able to, succeeded, etc.
Use to say something DIDN'T happen on one occasion
When I was younger, I
could run
10 km in under 40 minutes.
I
managed to
run 10 km yesterday in 55 minutes.
(
NOT
I could run 10 kim yesterday...)
I looked everywhere, but I
couldn't find
my wallet.
Can / Could
Between two people who know each other well, or asking strangers for small things
Could-used more when asking for more important things
Possibly
or
do you think
makes the request even more polite
Can/Could
I have more coffee?
Could
I stop working at noon?
Could I possibly
borrow your car?
May / Might
May = Could
Might = very uncommon, extremely polite
May
I use your phone?
May
I help you?
Might
I make a suggestion?
Giving or Refusing Permission
Use can or may
"Could I start late tomorrow?" "Of course you
can/may
."
Sorry, you
can't
use the car today.
(
NOT
Sorry, you
couldn't
...)
Asking about Permission
May
not used to ask about permission that already exists, what's normally allowed, or rules/laws.
May/Can
you park here?
Can
you park here on Saturdays?
(
NOT May
you park here...)
Past Permission
Don't use
could
to say someone was allowed to do something on one occasion.
When I was a child, I
could
watch TV whenever I wanted.
Yesterday, the children
were allowed to
stay up to watch the game.
(
NOT
Yesterday, the children
could
stay...)
Difference:
must
--talk about feelings/wishes of speaker/hearer, common in regulations
have (got) to
--obligation from somewhere else
Must not
and
Don't have to
:
VERY DIFFERENT
I
must
apply for a visa this week.
I
have to
apply for a visa this week.
I
must
get my hair cut. It's too long.
My wife says that I'
ve got to
get my hair cut.
You
have to
drive on the left side of the road in Britain.
(
MORE NATURAL THAN
You
must
drive...)
In soccer, players
mustn't touch
the ball with their hands.
In rugby, players can pick up the ball but they
don't have to
.
Should and Ought to
Should
suggestions, advice, opinions (less strong than
must
)
make orders and instructions more polite (compared to
must
)
All drivers
must
have insurance: it's the law.
VS.
You
should
insure your house against theft--it's the smart thing to do.
Applications
should
be sent before May 1st.
Visitors
should
report to the office.
Ought to
similar to should, less common (followed by "to")
You
ought to
be more positive.
We
ought to
visit Aunt Tammy this weekend.
SHOULD
OUGHT TO
WILL
Something must be true if we're certain--not from experience, but from
deduction and thinking logically
.
(The negative of must with this meaning is can't.)
Use should (not) when not certain, but think there are
good reasons
to think something is (not) true.
Possible with same meaning as
should
.
Will/won't
can be used with similar meaning as
must/can't
. Most common when certain of something because it's
expected
or what is
normal/typical
.
EXAMPLES:
She
's
at home. I saw her go in.
VS.
She
must
be at home--her car's outside and the lights are on.
She
can't
be home; her car's gone and there are no lights on.
He left an hour ago. He
should
be home by now.
"Who can I ask about the dates?" "Try Amy--she
should
know."
He
ought to
be home by now.
Try Amy--she
ought to
know.
"There's someone coming up the stairs." "That
'll
be Megan."
"Let's go to the mall." "We'd better wait. It's too early and it
won't
be open yet."
MAY
Use to talk about the PROBABILITY that something is true/will happen.
Can be used in arguing--to say something is (not) true--but that doesn't make a difference to the main point.
Not used in questions.
Let's hurry, the shop
may
still be open.
We
may
go to Japan this summer. (there's a chance)
Do you think the company
may
lose money?
NOT
May
the company lose money?
He
may
be book smart, but he's got no common sense.
He
may
not like teaching, but he's very good at it.
MIGHT/COULD
Express smaller probability, hypothetical situations.
It might rain later, but I don't think it will.
It could rain later, but I don't think it will.
CAN
Not normally used to talk about probability.
May not VS. Can't
What's typical--use to talk about what is normally possible.
Andy may be in Joe's office
NOT Andy can be in Joe's office.
Isabelle may not be at home.
(Perhaps she's not there.)
Isabelle can't be at home--she's in Spain this week.
(She's certainly not there.)
A female crocodile can lay 30-40 eggs.
It can get very cold in our old house.
To talk about "unreal" past situations--the opposite of what happened/didn't happen.
To criticize people for not doing things.
To talk about possible situations when we're not sure what (has) happened.
To talk about what we know/believe from logical deduction from reasoning about things.
Opposite of what happened:
should have, ought to have, would have, could have, might have
Criticizing:
could have, might have
Not certain:
may have, could have, might have
Logical deduction:
must have, can't have
Must have vs. Had to
Can't have vs. May not have
You
should have
gone to the party.
(but you didn't)
Alice
oughtn't
to have bought that car.
(but she did)
I was so mad I
could have
killed them.
(but I didn't)
You
could have
helped!
(Why didn't you?)
You
might have
told me you were going to show up.
(Why didn't you call?)
I
may have
left the oven on.
They
might have
gone away for the weekend.
She's crying. Something
must have
happened.
He's not here. He
can't have
gotten my message.
They must have gone home.
They had to go home.
They can't have arrived yet.
They may not have arrived yet.
Needn't have vs. Didn't need to
I needn't have cooked so much food.
We had plenty of food left over, so I didn't need to cook.
HAD BETTER:
gives strong or immediate advice
You'd better clean your room before your dad gets home.
You'd better get an eye test. NOT: People had better get eye testes regularly.
not past/comparative = "This is a good thing to do now."
It's 6:00. I'd better start on my homework.
NOT used in polite requests
Could you go out and buy something for dinner? NOT: You'd better go out and...
BE SUPPOSED TO:
what's expected/what should happen
You're supposed to study before you have a test.
Jack was supposed to be home at 6:30.
what is believed
Was that joke supposed to be funny?
She's supposed to be a good singer.
WILL
willingness to do something
Will you follow me, please?
He'll do anything for a laugh.
habits and typical behavior
Jenny will always babysit if we need her to.
stressed = sounds critical
You WILL go with me to the party, won't you?
WOULD
less direct, more polite
Would you follow me, please?
habits/typical behavior in the past
We would always go to Grandma's house for lunch on Sundays.
Talks about past situations and habits (no present)
I used to go to my friend's house on Friday nights.
Used with "did" in questions
Did you use to play the guitar?
NOTICE THE FORMS
Affirmative:
used
to
Negative: didn't
use
to
Question: did...
use
to...?
Would = talk about habits in particular time frames
On weekends, we used to/would go camping.
I used to play the violin.
NOT: I would play the violin.
Used as modal when talking about things that are necessary at the time of speaking (especially in questions and negatives).
Tell her she needn't come to the meeting.
Need I send/Do I need to send in the application now?
Mustn't VS. Needn't/Don't need to
In poker, you mustn't look at the other players' cards. (not allowed)
You needn't play for money, but you can if you like. (not necessary)
Full transcript