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The New England Colonies
Transcript of The New England Colonies
For colonists looking for more freedom and financial opportunities than in Massachusetts. Saybrook Established in 1637 by John Davenport
Merged with the Colony of Connecticut in 1662 Established in 1635 by John Winthrop the Younger
Merged with the Colony of Connecticut in 1644 New Haven Colony of Connecticut When the three colonies united, they created the first written consitution in history that created a government, the Fundamental Orders When John Winthrop governed the united Connecticut colony, he created a charter similar to those of Massachusetts. Because of this, many people in New Haven emigrated to New York or Northern New Jersey Started May 20, 1634 Pequot Tribe harassed colonists because of the colonists taking their land Mystice Massacre
May 26, 1637 Colonists declare
war Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, and Saybrook colonies versus the Pequot Tribe Ended September 21, 1638
Treaty of Hartford Providence Founded by Roger Williams in 1636
Named Providence because Williams believed God led him and his followers here
Also named three islands after virtues Baptists exiled from religious persecution in the Massachusetts Bay Colony Baptist Sanctuary Hope Island Patience Island Prudence Island Three Islands named after virtues Aquidneck Island Bought by Baptist leader Anne Hutchinson from Native Americans Portsmouth Warwick Many settlements of Baptist refugees banded together and formed a loose alliance, eventually becoming the English colony of Rhode Island in 1643 Colony of Rhode Island The People Council President Refused a governor, instead the colony set up an elected president and council Newport Warwick, Portsmouth, and Newport welcomed almost all religious groups, with some exceptions to Catholicism Cambridge The Pilgrims were Separatists, they believed in Predestination. This is a belief that God determines your fate before you are born and you can not do anything about it to change it. Religion Founded by William Bradford and the Separatists in 1620
Joined Massachusetts in 1691 Government The Mayflower Compact was an agreement written to form a government. It was signed on November 11, 1620. Originally the governor was elected by the people, but then was chosen by the court. Bradford was the first governor. In the first 2 years, the economy was a communal system. In 1623, when problems arose, they began owning private properties. This new method shortly proved to be the more efficient method. Economy Trade, Agriculture and Livestock The major trade industry was in fur.
The colonists planted corn, carrots, oats, squash, barley, pumpkins, turnips, wheat, potatoes, beans, and peas. They also fished, and raised goats, cattle, pigs, and sheep. The First Thanksgiving In 1621, after a year of living in Plymouth, the Pilgrims signed a treaty with the Wampanoag Indians to celebrate the first Thanksgiving after the harvest. The first passenger born on the Mayflower was Oceanus Hopkins. http://www.mayflowerhistory.com/Passengers/passengers.php Colony of New Hampshire Rhode Island was the first of the thirteen colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown, on May 4, 1776 It was also the last colony of the thirteen colonies to ratify the United States Constitution on May 29, 1790 The Mystic Massacre in Mystic River
400-700 Pequot men, women and children were killed.
Most were burnt in their own huts Founded by John Winthrop and the Puritans in 1630 Religion Government The Boston Tea Party Trade, Agriculture, and Livestock Salem Witch Trials The colonists from the Massachusetts Bay Colony were Puritans. Puritans believe in predestination. They believe that God is all knowing and that what should happen to every soul is known to God before people are even born. They also believed that those who were chosen to be saved by God will experience conversion. Conversion is believed by Puritans to be the process by which God would reveal His grace to the chosen and they would know that they are saved. The government of the Massachusetts Bay Colony was not a democracy. Although at the time it was considered to be liberal. The freemen, Puritans, elected the governer, his assistants, and the General Court (representatives). The government's purpose was to enforce God's laws. Farming wasn't easy in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. They were able to produce corn. People in the Massachusetts Bay Colony mainly fished and made ships. The Salem Witch Trials occurred during the year of 1692. During this time, over 200 people were accused with practicing witchcraft and 20 killed. These began when a group of girls became sick during January of 1692. The girls began to act wierd, they had "fits" (they would hide under the furniture and cry in pain). Later in January, two of the sick girls named three women whom they believed had made these things happen. These women were Sarah Good, Sarah Osburn, and Tituba, a slave. The women confessed to being approaced by Satan and to do as he wanted with witchcraft. The first woman brought to trial was Bridget Bishop, who was accused by five young girls who claimed that she wanted them to sign a pact with the devil. She was convicted and hanged. The Boston Tea Party happened on December 16, 1773. King George III had been devising ways to accomodate for the money spent on the French and Indian War. He had passed the Stamp Act in 1765, the Townsend Acts in 1767, and later in 1770, the Boston Massacre occured. Parliament was trying to get its money from the colonies. The colonies refused to pay taxes to Parliament because they were given no representation in Parliament. Tea was a necesity in colonial life and the idea of having to pay a tax on it was absurd to them. When England sent ships into the ports, colonists dressed as Indians and went aboard the ships and dumped all the tea overboard in protest to England. This eventually along with other happenings sparked the American Revolution. The Stamp Act, the Townsend Acts, and the Boston Massacre The Stamp Act put a stamp on all products made by Britain proclaiming that taxes were to be paid on all things. The Townsend Acts put a tax on tea, paint, oil, glass, paper and lead. The Boston Massacre was a streetfight between Patriot colonists and British soldiers. This name is not accurate considering only five people total were killed. By November 25th, the Connecticut River was frozen over, the snow was deep, and the season so harsh, that a considerable number of the cattle driven from Massachusetts could not be brought across the river, and a considerable number perished. The sufferings of the people for want of food during the winter were often severe. After all the help they were able to obtain from hunting and the Indians, they were forced to subsist on only acorns, malt, and grains. In the autumn of 1635, a company, consisting of sixty men, women and children, from the settlements of Newtown and Watertown, in Massachusetts, commenced their journey through the wilderness to the Connecticut River. On their arrival, they settled here at Hartford. They commenced their journey on October 25th but due to the obstacles on the way, they arrived much later than they expected. The Pequot War Rhode Island became notably known to have many Quakers and Jews settle within the colony Although Rhode Island remained at peace with the Native Americans, the relationship between the other New England colonies and the Native Americans was more strained, and sometimes led to bloodshed, despite attempts by the Rhode Island leadership to broker peace. During King Philip's War, both sides regularly violated Rhode Island's neutrality. The war's largest battle occurred in Rhode Island, when a force of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Plymouth militia under General Josiah Winslow invaded and destroyed the fortified Narragansett Indian village in the Great Swamp in southern Rhode Island, on December 19, 1675. The Narragansett also invaded, and burnt down several of the cities of Rhode Island, including Providence, although they allowed the population to leave first. Native American Relations The territory of New Hampshire had been give to John Mason through a grant in 1622 from the Council of New England
The land grant went from the Merrimac to the Kennebec river
The first settlement was in 1623 at the mouth of the Piscataqua river and it was called Little Harbor
Mason sent settlers to establish a fishing colony
In 1629 the Laconia Company formed in England and made a settlement in the mouth of the Piscataqua
This settlement was called Strawberry Bank, but eventually was renamed as Portsmouth Settlement Government All of the small towns and settlements had independent government that were unstable and inefficient
In 1639 the towns agreed to join together, but Massachusetts began to takeover their territory and the people of New Hampshire agreed to go under their control in 1641
King Charles II separated Massachusetts and New Hampshire in 1679
Also in 1679 New Hampshire became a royal province, where the King Charles II picked the governor and there was no elected government For a period of time New Hampshire was controlled by the Puritan Massachusetts
Massachusetts did not make the people of New Hampshire have a Congressional Church membership to vote
The Congressional Church was the official religion of Massachusetts
Because of this there was not dominant religion in New Hampshire
Religious views were very diverse
Puritanism was the most common Lifestyle Crops of New Hampshire were corn, rye, pumpkins, squash, beans, and potatoes most
Most people were fishermen
People also made profit in shipbuilding with use of large forests
The economy revolved around the sawmills, merchant's warehouses, shipyards, and town centers
They produced many wool and cotton goods
Never had a huge population growth The use of natural resources aided New Hampshire in their trades
The majority of their trade included fish, timber, furs, ships, and livestock
Major trade city was Portsmouth Trade Religion