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Copy of Formal Instruction and Second Language Acquisition

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Yaseen Leghari

on 15 November 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Formal Instruction and Second Language Acquisition


•FORMAL INSTRUCTION – Refer to grammar teaching.
This reflects the importance which has been traditionally attached to grammar teaching in language pedagogy, and also the centrality of grammar in SLA research.
•Formal instruction directed at cognitive goals and Metacognitive goals.
Language centred instruction and Learner centred instruction.
It is impotant to ask
Language Centered Instruction
The effects of formal instruction on Second Language Learning
Learners who receive FI acihieve higher levels
of L2 proficiency than those who don't
There are differences in the proficiency or in the sequence
of aquisition of the naturalistic learners and the FI learners
Teachers use FI because they want to develop
General proficiency
Improve the accuracy.
Help learners to acquire new linguistic
The effects of formal instruction on general languge proficiency
Krashen, Jones, Zelinski and Usprich(1978)
FI is more efficient way of learning for adults that trying to learn in the streets
Spada (1987)
Learners who had acces to both, FI and
exposure to English showed the greatest
gains in proficiency.
"Attention to both form and meaning works
best for L2 learners"
Long (1983)
The amount of exposure had no effect on the proficiency of learners matched for amount of instruction
Fathman (1978)
Some students were skillful at learnig informally while others had dificulty
The effects of FI on production accuracy
•Studies show, instruction only aids the acquisition of features which are formally easy to acquire, depending on the complexity of target structure. (Pica 1983 – 1985)
Its effects may become evident only some time
after the instruction
•Studies as (Ellis 1989), which indicates that learners who receive such instruction may still do better than untutored time.
•Other studies suggest that formal instruction distorts the input made available to the learner.
FI and the sequence of acquisition
Rutherford (1988)
Learners do not acquire the L2 grammar as a set of "accumulated entities" but rather work on a number of features simultaneously
Brindley (1991)
Even with instruction the acquisition of complex rules takes time
Pienemann (1985)
Teachability hypothesis
Instruction can only promote language acquisition if the stucture taught is acquired ib the natural setting
The durability of formal instruction
•The increased levels of accuracy that result from
instruction may prove to be impermanent, or the
acquisition of a new grammatical feature illusory.
•When form focused instruction is introduced in a way which is divorced from the communicative needs and activities of the students, only short –term effects can be obtained. (Lightbown, 1991).
•The durability of instructional effects is closely
linked to the nature of the learners’ motivation.
The effects of types of FI
What FI works best?
Focus on Forms vs. focus on Form
Isolate linguistic forms in order to be evaluated and taught one at a time
Strtuctural Syllabus
Focused on Grammar
Involves alternating in some principled way
on meaningvand focus on form.
Tasked - based Syllabus

Focus on forms: FI help learners improve the accuracyof
features they have already learnt
Implicit vs. explicit instruction
The effectiveness of an implicit or explicit instruction treatment may depend on the type of linguistic material being learnt and the characteristics of the individual learner.
Practice vs."counsciousness-raising"
Need to involve production by the learner
Is directed at explicit rather than implicit knowledge
Interpretation vs. Practice
•Interpretation involves, noticing the presence of a specific feature in the input, and comprehending the meaning of the feature
•Practice refers to a direct and conscious effort to develop an explicit representation.
Rules presented by examples
While trying to communicate, learnners pay attention to the
formal properties
Learner instruction matching
•LIM, can take place informally, as teachers make adjustments in the demands they place on learners in the context of their day by day teaching
•ATI, Aptitude Treatment Interaction, (Cronbach and Snow-1977).
The role of FI Theory
The "Zero option"
Abandonment of FI
Learners learn what has been taught
Instruction as facilitation
•Interface hypothesis.
•Variability hypothesis.
•Teachability hypothesis.
The Necessity for Instruction
The Selective attention Hypothesis
White (1991)
When Learner's L1 is more general than L2
Adverb between Verb and and the direct object
FI results increased accuracy and acelerates
FI results in increased accuracy and accelerates progress through developmental sequences.
The learner's stage of development affects whether the instruction is succesful
It is not clear which kind of instruction works best but there is evident to suggest that focusing learners' attention on forms, and the meanings they realize in the context of communicative activities, results in seccessful learning.
Focusing learner's attention on forms and meanings they realize in the context of communicative activities , results in succesful learning
Not whether instruction should provide access to language as used communicative exchage of meaning, but whether it should also seek to draw learner's attention to specific linguistic properties.
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