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Specific Immunity Concept Map

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Alexandra Steinbacher

on 5 December 2013

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Transcript of Specific Immunity Concept Map

One day, Princess Peach was innocently baton waving when...
...Some terrible microbes tried to take over her body!!!
Princess! There are invaders coming to attack your body's normal processes! And they have already evaded your body's first and second lines of defense!
Oh no! What can we do?
Don't worry princess! Your
cell-mediated immunity
humoral immunity
have the situation under control!
Mario, the T Cell, warns the princess...
How Princess Peach's Specific Immunity Saved the Day
T Cell
But the virus had already infected many cells.
Cell-Mediated Immunity
was called to help.
The endogenously infected cell presents an epitope of the virus using a MHC 1.
Cell-Mediated Immunity
T Helper Cell
T Cytotoxic Cell
The MHC1 holds an epitope from the virus
The Th cell binds to the MHC 1
The Tc Cell binds to the MHC 1
Interleukin 12
The infected cell then releases Interleukin 12 which unbinds the Th cell and transforms it into a Th1 cell
Th1 Cell
The Th1 cell then releases interleukin 2 to unbind and activate the Tc cell
Interleukin 2
Interleukin 2
Activated Tc Cell
Activated Tc cells
Memory Tc cell
The activated Tc cell makes many clones of itself. Most of the clones are naturally activated Tc cells, but a few become memory Tc cells.
Then the many activated Tc cells release cytokines called perforin and granzyme that puncture the cell membrane of the infected cells. Or they can use the CD95 Pathway to bind to the cell. Both of these methods cause the infected cell to apoptose, preventing the virus from spreading any further.
The virus had been defeated, but in the meantime the bacteria were dividing exponentially! Mario, the T cell, then called on
Humoral Imunity
for help!
Humoral Immunity
An APC cell phagocytizes the exogenous bacteria and carries it in a vesicle called a phagosome. Then it sends another vesicle full of lysosome to kill the cell.
Then the APC presents an epitope of the bacteria using an MHC 2.
Antigen Presenting Cell
Epitope of the bacteria
The T Helper cell binds to the MHC 2 on the APC
Interleukin 4
When the Th cell binds to the receptor, the APC releases interleukin 4 which unbinds the Th cell and differentiates it into a Th2 cell
After the Th cell differentiates in a Th2 cell, it binds to the appropriate B cell and interleukin 4 is released, allowing it to differentiate into a plasma cell.
Interleukin 4
Th2 Cell
B Cell
Plasma Cell
The plasma cell clones many copies of itself. Most of the clones are plasma cells, but a few are kept as memory cells.
Memory B Cell
Plasma Cells
The plasma cells make antibodies to identify the bacteria as foreign. They make 2,000 antibodies per second. There are 4 different types of antibodies.
This antibody is usually found in the blood. It is the first antibody produced during a primary response to a pathogen, and has 10 antigen binding site.
IgA is found is bodily secretions such as mucus, tears, or breast milk. This antibody gives nursing babies some immunity before they produce the antibodies themselves.
This antibody is found in blood and interstitial fluid. It is the most common type of antibody in a secondary response to an antigen, and it is also the longest lasting antibody. IgG is the only antibody that can cross the placenta to provide newborn babies with immunity.
IgE is present in body fluids and in skin. It is present most often during allergic reactions. It binds to receptors on basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells which stimulates them to secrete histamines.
With the help of antibodies, Princess Peach's immune system was able to fight off the bacteria!
Princess Peach was healthy again and couldn't wait to thank Mario the T Cell and the rest of her immune system for all of their help!
And the next time something tries to attack Princess Peach,
Cell-Mediated Immunity
Humoral Immunity
will be ready!!
Full transcript