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Nanotechnology and Nanomedicines

Chemistry Presentation
by

Dion Barnaby

on 15 May 2013

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Transcript of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicines

By Dion Barnaby and Harry Fairman Nanotechnology Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials Myths Nanotechnology involves synthetic manufacturing and engineering products at a length of 1-100 nanometers (nm) an atomic level. At this level, it is often possible to manipulate individual atoms and molecules. It often involves the creation of structures and devices that hold a purpose at a level not possible to achieve through other means of engineering. Medicine > Nanotechnology is used to combat diseases such as cancer and infections. Also some drugs are made from nanoparticles, which are more easily absorbed.
Food >Used to protect food form bacteria, and sometimes in food supplements.
Sports Equipment > Various forms of nanotechnology such as carbon nanotubes are used in various rackets and frames to make them stronger as well as lighter.
Clothes > Nanotechnologies are used to repel dirt in stain-resistant clothing. They are also used to stop clothes from beginning to smell when they get sweaty, and to repel water with hydrophobic nanomaterials.
Technology and Home Equipment >Some products such as laptops are covered in nanosilver to stop the spread of bacteria. What can it be used for? Nanomedicines are a relatively new discovery, and nanotechnology can be used in a variety of ways in the medical world. The most notable ways in which they can be used are to carry drugs or proteins to a specific area of the body and for cancer treatment. For example, nanoparticles are sometimes used in the transporting of drugs to tumour in and around the body. NanoMedicine Quantum dots are a form of nanomaterial which can be used alongside MRI scanners to locate tumours. The size of the nanoparticles allows them to show a high contrast image of where the tumour is located. the downside of using these special quantom dots is that they usually contain toxic chemicals that can affect the body in various ways, such as changing the way cultured cells develop. Cancer Although many people view the use of nanotechnology as a great thing, there are also many myths associated with its use. Two of the most prominent myths around are the 'green goo' and 'grey goo' theories.

•The 'green goo' theory is the fear that self replicating nanoparticles will be able to move into human bodies and do unpredictable things.

•The 'grey goo' theory says that millions of self replicating robots smaller than viruses will devour the earth.

•These two theories have been criticised on a widespread scale. If they did try to self replicate, lots of energy would be needed and so it would not be possible for them to replicate on a worldwide scale, and many organic organisms would be resistant to these possible robotic creatures. Their size Nanoparticles are usually under 100 nanometres. 1 nanometre is the equivalent to a billionth of a metre.

In context, the diameter of a carbon nanotube is 1 nm, whilst the thickness of a cell membrane is around 6-10 nm, and 625-740 nm is the wavelength of red light.

The length of the average red ant is 6mm, and so nanoparticles are extremely small! Public Opinion •Generally, public perceptions of nanotechnology are more positive than negative.

•Many people feel that the benefits brought by the technology much outweigh the possible fears and problems that people may have with it, and that it will revolutionise the way humans manufacture and produce various technologies.

•Widely believed that the introduction of nanotechnology to medicine will change the way that diseases are treated for the better, allowing for much more precise attempts to combat things such as cancer and infections due to the small nature of nanoparticles, and the accuracy with which they can be manipulated. Bibliography http://www.which.co.uk/campaigns/technology/what-you-need-to-know-about-nanotechnology/where-is-nanotechnology-used/

http://www.epa.gov/nanoscience/quickfinder/nanomaterials.htm

http://web.pdx.edu/~pmoeck/phy381/definitions-illustrations%20nanotech.pdf

http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/sya-nano/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanomedicine

http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/nanotechnology-molecular-manufacturing

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grey_goo#Limitations

http://www.malvern.com/labeng/industry/nanotechnology/nanoparticles_definition.htm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3920685.stm Nanomedicine: Benefits and Risks.... Benefits:
•Nanotechnology is expected to help doctors make early diagnosis of diseases on a cellular level before they become extremely problematic.

•The small size of nanoparticles allows for better absorption of drugs and medicines.

•They can be focused towards to the specific diseased area.

•Niche areas of medicine are being researched with the help of nanomedicine. In addition, much more general areas such as cancer, tissue regeneration and bone repair can also be accessed through nanotechnology.

•Molecular imaging using nanoparticles can help to detect tumours in early stages. Possible Risks:
•Since it is a new technology, it is relatively untested, and scientists are still unsure of the possible side effects it may hold.

•Newer technologies could interact with the body in ways that may not be beneficial.

•They can be destructive as well as constructive; clinical tests may not produce/provide accurate results for all.

•If the technology falls into the wrong hands, it is possible it could be manipulated in an inappropriate way that could make people ill. Nanomedicine Chemistry •Nanoparticles bond to different cells in different ways. They have a large surface to volume ratio. This means they can be very good catalysts.

•Due to their synthetic nature, it is possible to 'tune' the nanoparticles to attach themselves to various cells.

•In some cases, the nanoparticle is taken up by the cell because they are so small. These cells then change their shape, surface and size in response to this, as the nanoparticle directs them and tells them what to do.

•Characteristics such as the ability to deliver drugs and toxicity are affected. Public figures such as Prince Charles have criticised nanotechnology, 'saying it would be "surprising" if it did not "offer similar upsets" to thalidomide.'

"Discovering the secrets of the Universe is one thing; ensuring that those secrets are used wisely and appropriately is quite another.

"What exactly are the risks attached to each of the techniques under discussion, who will bear them, and who will be liable if and when real life fails to follow the rose-tinted script?"

He has also stated, however, that he feels nanotechnology is a 'triumph of human ingenuity'. The Prince's Views They can also be used for tissue engineering, surgery and to cope with problems involving the immune system and antibiotic resistance. As it is currently very difficult for scientists to work on particular cells, nanoparticles in nanomedicne allow for treatmeant at a cellular level, which could be much more beneficial and efficient in the long run. Nanomedicine... Source: BBC Nanoparticle Chemistry •Nanoparticlse are often arranged in a hexagonal pattern. Each particle is bonded to three other particles.

•Covalently bonded - makes for strong bonds.

•They are able to form shapes such as carbon nanotubes, and bucky balls (Buckminsterfullerene). The bucky ball has 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons.

•Carbon nanotubes are semi conductors.

•Some nanoparticles appear red-black in solution.
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