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Transcript of Qin Dynasty
(221-206 BCE) The controversial rule that left many lasting marks on China as we know it today. Part 2 GEOGRAPHY RESEARCH QUESTIONS How did geography influence where people settled in Ancient China?
Describe the topography, vegetation, and water resources in the region where your dynasty developed.
What advantages and disadvantages did geography pose for your dynasty?
How did your dynasty adapt to the geography?
Find a map that shows the location an extent of your dynasty. China’s geography is greatly varied and extremely diverse, allowing civilizations to adapt and develop in many different ways. Ancient Chinese settled in areas with water sources, flat lands and fertile soil for farming, moderate climate, and geographical features that made travel easy. Northeastern Plain Prairie grass provided food for livestock. Liao and Sungari Rivers were used for travel. The rivers were used by boats
When frozen in the winter, they could be used as roads North China Plain Good conditions for farming: Moderate climate
The Huang He River fertilizes the land with rich silt Chang Jiang Basins People used the many tributaries of the Chang Jiang River to transport goods and for travel The Chang Jiang River fertilizes the surrounding land much like the Huang He River. The conditions are perfect for growing rice: Warmth
Moisture Often, extreme weather, lack of water, and lack of vegetation made many places undesirable for settlement. Taklamakan Desert Too dry for vegetation to grow Extreme weather, including sandstorms, made many essential activities nearly impossible. Growing crops
Travel Gobi Desert Stony Almost no vegetation Tibet Qinghai Plateau Conditions are not suitable for farming Too cold
Too dry Air is thin and difficult to breathe The Qin Dynasty developed in East Asia and includes geographical features such as the North China Plain, the Northeastern Plain, and the Chang Jiang Basins. Although the Qin Dynasty developed in an area with many benefits, many disadvantages challenged the Ancient Chinese and forced them to adapt. Benefits of Geography Topography Vegetation Water Resources The topography of the North China Plain, the Northeastern Plain, and the Chang Jiang Basins were generally low hills and flat plains. These features make farming easy. The vegetation of the Qin Dynasty was mostly prairie grass. This was good for agriculture, as it provided a food source for livestock. Rivers Huang He River (fertilized land for farming) Yangtze River (also known as the Chang Jiang River) Xi Jiang River Liao River (navigable by small boats for trade and travel) Sungari River (navigable by large boats for trade and travel) Seas Yellow Sea South China Sea East China Sea Flat plains The Huang He River The Northeastern Plains The Chang Jiang Basins The flat plains that made up much of the Qin Dynasty didn’t provide a natural barrier to protect from invaders This river often flooded, killing many people. A gap in the mountains nearby made this area easily accessible by invaders It was too cold and dry to farm Many aspects of this area made agriculture almost impossible Little space for farming The steep slopes and thick rainforests made it difficult to raise grazing animals. The heavy monsoon rains made farming difficult The people of the Qin Dynasty innovated and adapted to overcome these challenges that their environment presented. The Great Wall Roads Agriculture Since the flat plains of the northern Qin Dynasty offered no protection from invaders, the Emperor of Qin compensated for the lack of a natural barrier by building the Great Wall. The Qin Dynasty built roads that connected major cities, allowing easier travel and communication People grew millet along the Huang He River People grew rice along the Chang Jiang River People raised water buffalo to help work the soil Part 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE QIN DYNASTY (GRWFAST TWM) Research Questions Research GRWFAST TWM details from your dynasty. Include information on trade, philosophical ideologies, warfare, and include medicine as a part of technology.
Include two primary source images that go with any characteristic from this section. Provide the citation for this image underneath it. Maintaining order
Security Quality of life Economic growth National Unity Government Warfare Social Structure Laws The land was split up into 36 districts. Each district was ruled by three officials. Army Laws and agriculture District activities Chariots symbolized leadership. The Emperor used many methods to conquer his enemies. Military might Spies Bribery Alliances The emperor conquered all of China, but this cost millions of lives. The Emperor oversaw the building of the Great Wall, which made defending the Qin Dynasty much easier. There were 20 different social levels. The level one was placed in was determined by one’s success in the army. When people strove to be in higher social classes, this helped with the security of the Qin Dynasty as well. Purposes Punishment Prevent crime Shape society for the better Leaders spread documents called lu and ling that stated laws and their punishments. Example: Farmers were ordered to produce a certain amount of crops. This created a stable food supply for society. Death Jail Cutting off a body part Food Supply Philosophical Ideologies Technology Each man was given a plot of land on which to farm. This helped the Emperor keep track of the men in his kingdom, making it easier to draft them for the army and collect taxes. Staples a. millet
c. wheat Vegetables a. garlic
d. turnips Trees a. apricot
c. pear Livestock a. sheep
g. pigs Hunted animals a. wild boar
c. muntjac (a type of small deer) Other a. fish
b. shellfish How was the food prepared? a. boiling
e. pickling The Qin Dynasty was built on Legalism (“Set clear laws and harshly punish those who disobey them”). The Emperor of Qin hated Confucianism (“Lead by example”). The Emperor controlled a strong central government. The Emperor wrote laws that harshly punished people who disobeyed them. The rich and the poor were equally punished. Confucian scholars didn’t believe in strict laws and harsh punishments. The Emperor issued a book burning. i. The Emperor didn’t approve of people questioning his rule.
ii. The Emperor burned all the books in the kingdom that mentioned Confucianism.
iii. The only books that were spared were books about medicine, farming, and the history of the Qin Dynasty.
iv. The Emperor wrote laws that punished (by execution) anyone who talked about Confucianism. Irrigation A hydraulic engineer from the Han state was sent to advise the Qin Dynasty King on irrigation. They built a large canal through the Qin Dynasty. This irrigation project benefited the Qin Dynasty in many ways. The land became very fertile.
The army could grow stronger with the agricultural surplus. The Qin Dynasty invented the compass. This improved travel. Trade (Before) Money consisted of a variety of random items. a. shells
d. tin objects
e. coins Trade (After) The Emperor standardized money to make trade easier. The Emperor standardized the width of chariot wheels a. Metal coins of gold or bronze.
b. A hole in the center of each coin.
c. Coins could be strung on a cord. When chariot wheels made ruts in the road, all the chariots would be able to drive in those ruts. This increased the pace of travel, allowing for easier trade. Religion Standardization Writing The Qin Dynasty followed the religion of the Zhou Dynasty. The Terra Cotta Army Ying and yang Ceremonies Two opposite forces.
Governed the universe.
Balanced each other. Fengchan Performed by piling rocks on a sacred mountain to bring humans closer to heaven.
A ceremony to mark a great accomplishment.
The Emperor of Qin was thought to have performed this ceremony to celebrate the founding of the Qin Dynasty. a. The Terra Cotta army was built to protect the Emperor in the afterlife.
b. Currently, more than 8,000 soldiers have been discovered.
c. No two soldiers are alike.
d. Height: 5 ft. 8 in. to 6 ft. 6 in.
e. Armed with real weapons.
f. Originally painted bright colors. 1. Length of chariot axles (This improved travel, uniting the land.)
2. Measuring cups
5. Writing 1. The Emperor standardized and simplified writing to create a common dialect.
2. A later dictionary approved about 9,000 characters. Part 4 Inventions or Innovation Research Questions Research an invention or innovation that was developed in your dynasty.
Why was it needed?
What led to it being invented?
What problem did it solve?
How did it help?
What was the short term impact of it?
What was the long term impact?
Do you think there was a positive or negative (or both) impact from it? Before the invention of the compass, navigation was extremely difficult and it was easy to get lost. The south pointing spoon, or the sinan, was invented as the first compass. The invention of the compass still affects people's lives today. People had to rely on landmarks to find their position and destination at sea. People also had to rely on the stars and constellations to find their position and direction at sea. The Chinese believed in five forces of nature that ruled the planets. a. Metal (Venus)
b. Wood (Jupiter)
c. Water (Mercury)
d. Fire (Mars)
e. Earth (Saturn) The Chinese measured the height of the stars above the horizon to determine their position. The compass had many features that made it very different from the compass that people know and use today. There were two flat discs that made up the shi. The upper circular disc represented the heavens.
The lower square disc represented the earth.
A large lodestone (magnetite) spoon was placed on top of the shi.
The marker representing south was often painted red. The constellation “Big Dipper”, “Plough”, or “Great Bear” was marked on the upper disc along with the markings that indicated north, south, east, and west. The first compass was not originally used for navigation. Geomancy (feng shui): A way of interpreting the patterns made when one throws soil, rocks, or sand on the ground. The Chinese later discovered magnetic declination. People today still use the compass in feng shui. They use it to pick out the best site of a tomb or a building.
They even use it to pick the site of a new city. Magnetic declination was the angle between north as shown on a compass and true geographic north.
This would enable people to have more precise navigation. Thanks for watching! ¡Adiós!