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Exercise Physiology - Energy Systems
Transcript of Exercise Physiology - Energy Systems
Energy Release from ATP
McArdle et al, 2011 accurately stated that the energy that is released from ATP is due to Hydrolysis. Water Binds on to ATP during Hydrolysis, this splits the outermost phosphate bond. ATPase speeds this up.
This may also be known as the lactic acid system. it is the second fastest after the PCr system in resynthesising ATP. It still does not require oxygen.
It synthesizes new ATP molecules from glycogen. The reaction is known as glycolysis.
The Krebs cycle is a series of chemical reactions that produce CO2 and ATP.
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Knowles JR (1980). "Enzyme-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer reactions". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 49: 877–919
MBP. (2013). Lipolysis and the Oxidation of Fatty Acids. Available: http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/fatty-acid-oxidation.php. Last accessed 12th Nov 2013.
McArdle, W. Katch, V. Katch, F (2011). Essentials of Exercise Physiology. 4th ed. Santa Barbara, CA: Wolters Kluwer. 152, 159.
Medbio. (2010). Work and energy in muscles. Available: http://www.medbio.info/Horn/Time%206/muscle_metabolism_march_2007.htm. Last accessed 5th Nov 2013
nature. (2010). Reactions of beta-oxidation. Available: http://www.nature.com/scitable/content/reactions-of-beta-oxidation-14897250. Last accessed 11th Nov 2013.
What is Energy Transfer?
Energy is not defined in concrete terms of size, shape or mass. It does, however, suggest a dynamic state related to change (McArdle et al, 2011)
What is Energy?
The first law of thermodynamics states that energy must be transferred or converted from one form to another and cannot be created. (Sports Medicine Institute, 2013)
Is Aaron Lennon creating the energy out of nothing?
ATP - A Definition
Knowles, JR (1980) quite accurately described ATP as a nucleotide triphosphate used as a coenzyme within cells. He also referred to it as the 'Molecular unit of currency of intracellular energy transfer.'
ADP + P
Unfortunately there is usually only around 80g to 100g of ATP within the body, this means that the body needs a series of different ways to re synthesis them.
The phosphocreatine system is the fastest system to generate ATP's. it doesn't require oxygen and kicks in when the body can tell we are exerting maximal effort.
How does it resynthesis ATP?
When we are working at maximal effort our body starts to break down PCr so that the phosphate is separate from the creatine.
This releases energy that will be used to resynthesis the spare phosphate ion to the ADP that is left from the ATP System.
This only lasts about 8-10 seconds
Breakdown of Pyruvate
The Krebs cycle uses 3 NAD+, 2 H2O, 1 FAD+ and 1 ADP
The Krebs cycle produces 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 2 CO2 and 1 ATP
Electron Transport Chain
The major function of the electron transport chain is to extract energy from the use of redox reaction, coupled with the production of a proton gradient. (Khan Acadamy, 2009)
As the electrons become oxidized further down the chain, their molecular energy is reduced
(Arc Bodybuilding, 2007)
(Biomooc News, 2012)
This energy is then used to pump protons across the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Inside is the matrix and this is where the kreb cycle happens, and the majority of NADH is lying
Proteins go out!
proteins want to go back!
Beta Oxidation - Step 1
The first step within beta oxidation is the activation of fatty acids. This means a CoA group will be added to the fatty acid: it is now a fatty acyl CoA.
This is achieved by fatty acyl CoA synthetase.
This overall uses one ATP and a CoA
Step two is transferring the Fatty Acyl CoA into the mitochondria, this done via various reactions.
Now that it is in the mitochondria, it will go through a series of steps (oxidation, Thiolysis and hydration).
This provides 1 NADH, 1 FADH2 and an Acetyl CoA
Sports Medicine Institute. (2013). How the Body Uses Energy. Available: http://ironman.memorialhermann.org/performance-improvement/sports-science/nutrition/how-the-body-uses-energy/. Last accessed 17th Oct 2013.
Thinkquest. (2011). The Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. Available: http://library.thinkquest.org/27819/ch4_6.shtml. Last accessed 11th Nov 2013.
UIC. (2012). Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and other Energy-Releasing Pathways. Available: http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lectf03am/lect11.htm. Last accessed 31st Oct 2013.
Wikipedia. (2013). Glycolysis. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycolysis. Last accessed 11th Nov 2013.