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First Aid and Emergencies Unit

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Kelsie Baker

on 30 April 2018

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Transcript of First Aid and Emergencies Unit

First Aid and Emergencies
Responding to Other Common Emergencies

Control bleeding
- Steps to control the bleeding:
1. Raise the wounded body part above the heart level of the heart.
2. Cover the wound with sterile gauze
3. press the palm of your hand firmly against the gauze
4. blood soaks through the gauze, add another pad.
5. when the bleeding stops, then secure the pad
firmly in place with bandage
6. if it doesn't stop (5 min), then call for
medical help

first aid for bleeding
First Aid for burns
- first- degree burns : involve only the outer layer of skin, called the epidermis.
may become swollen and painful
- second -degree burns : involve the epidermis and the underlying layers of skin (the dermis).
blisters, severe pain and swelling.
- third-degree burns : all layers of the skin and may penetrate the underlying tissues.
can destroy nerve endings, so victims may not experience pain

First steps in an Emergency
- By learning and using proper first aid procedure, will help prevent victims from suffering further injury and reduce the number of victims who die:
1. Recognize an emergency
2. Check the scene to make sure its safe for you to respond
3. follow the three C's ( Check, call and Care)

Emergency preparedness
Things you put in your kit:
- three- day supply of food and water
- a battery- powered radio
- change of clothing
- sleeping bags
- first-aid supplies
- duct tape and plastic sheeting
- copies of important documents(eg. passport and birth certificates)
- Money
- a list of phone numbers for each member of your family you can reach one another if you are separated.
Being prepared for emergencies
Natural disasters

- If you are in indoors: drop to the ground. Take cover under sturdy tables or desk
-If you are outdoors: Stay clear of buildings, trees, streetlights and power lines
- If you are in a car: Stop the car and stay inside. Avoid parking near or under trees
- call 911 if you spot one.
- before you go shut off any gas or oil supplies at their source
- Close all doors and windows

A first-aid procedure that combines rescue breathing and chest compressions to supply oxygen to the body until normal body functions can resume.
Before performing CPR check to see if the person's conscious.
Tap the victim on the shoulder while shouting, “Are you okay?”
If the victim doesn’t respond, start the chain of survival by calling 911.
Then begin performing the steps for CPR.

Chain of Survival

1. Call emergency medical services
2. CPR
3. Defibrillation:
Defibrillator- a device that delivers an electric shock to the heart to restore its normal rhythm
4. Advanced care
First Aid for Choking
Occurs when an object becomes stuck in a person's windpipe, cutting off the flow of air.
Other signs
- Inability to speak
- Difficulty breathing
- Inability to cough forcefully
- Turning blue in the face or lips
- Loss of consciousness
First Aid for Shock
- A life-threatening condition in which the
heart is not delivering an adequate supply
of blood to the body
- Cold, clammy skin, could be graying or pale
- Weak, rapid pulse and altered breathing
- Dull, staring eyes with dilated pupils
- Faintness, weakness, confusion or loss of consciousness
CPR and First Aid for Shock and Choking
Muscles, Joint, and Bone Injuries
Sports and other physical activities can cause injuries to your muscles, joints, and bones
Muscle and Joint Injuries
Strain: A tear in a muscle
Sprain: An injury to the ligaments around a joint
Call for help if:
- Pain is very severe - The injury is bleeding
- The joint looks deformed - You hear popping sound coming
- The victim is unable to from the joint
move the affected muscle or joint

-Protect - wrap it in a bandage or splint
-Rest - for at least a day
-Ice - 10 to 15 minutes at a time, three times a day to reduce swelling and pain.
-Compress - wrap it
firmly, not too tightly
-Elevate - above the
level of the heart, if possible.

Fractures and Dislocations
Fracture: A break in a bone
Dislocation: A separation of a bone from its normal position in a joint
- severe pain
- Swelling
- Bruising
- Inability to move affected body part
- Affected body part might be discolored and out of place
- Temporary loss of consciousness that occurs when not enough blood is flowing to the brain.
- When someone faints, try to catch the person to keep them from falling
- If the victim doesn't gain consciousness after a couple of minutes call for help.
- A jarring injury to the brain that can cause unconsciousness

Other Common Emergencies
- Include animal bites, nosebleeds, and poisoning
Animal Bites
- Can transmit serious disease like rabies
- A vaccine can prevent rabies if given within two days of exposure to the virus
- Should be treated like other open wounds
- Occur after an injury to the nose or when very dry air causes the lining o the nose to become irritated.
- Lean forward to avoid swallowing blood
-If bleeding doesn't stop after 20, seek help

-Poison control center: A round-the-clock service that provides emergency medical advice on how to treat victims of poisoning.


- You should treat bite seriously unless you are absolutely sure of the species.
Some poisonous snakes: Rattlesnakes, copperheads, water moccasins, coral snakes and cobras

Insect and Spider Bites
or Stings
- painful, but usually not dangerous
- If victim is allergic to the venom of these insects, call for help immediately
Symptoms of allergies to the venom:
- Weakness
- Difficulty breathing
-Swelling of the face
Poisonous Plants
- Most people are allergic to poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac
- Cause itching, swelling, redness, burning, and blisters at site of contact.
Ways poison enters the body:
- Swallowing - Inhalation
- Through the eyes - Through the skin

First-Aid -
The immediate, temporary care given to an ill or injured person until professional medical care can be provided

Check the victim
Call 911 or your local emergency number.
Care for the victim.

A victim who is unconscious or has a life-threatening condition needs immediate care.
 Only move the victim if he or she is in direct physical danger or if you must move the victim in order to provide lifesaving care.

If the victim is in need of immediate care, get someone else at the scene to call 911 while you provide first aid.

If possible, get the victim’s permission before giving first aid.
Good Samaritan laws

Statutes that protect rescuers from being sued for giving emergency care

Universal precautions require people who provide first aid or medical care to treat all body fluids as if they could carry disease.

Steps taken to prevent the spread of disease through blood and other body fluids when providing first aid or health care

Universal precautions

Wear sterile gloves
Wash hands immediately after
Use a mouthpiece
The steps for treating bleeding depend on the type of injury and how severe it is.

Types of wounds:
- Abrasion : Scrape
- Lacerations : Caused by a sharp object slicing through layers of skin
- Punctures : A small but deep hole caused by a sharp and narrow object
- Avulsions : When skin or tissue is partly or completely torn away

Bleeding from the eyes, nose, mouth, or ears may be a sign that internal bleeding is occurring.
CALL 911 immediately

Treatment for burns depends on the severity of the burn.

Burns can result from exposure to heat, flame, hot water, steam, sunlight, electricity, and certain chemicals.



Steps for treating
1. Cool the burned area with cool, running water for at least 5 mins
2. Cover the burn loosely with sterile gauze
3. give the victim an over-the-counter pain reliever
4. Minor burns usually heal without further treatment ,
though the skin may be discolored. If signs of infection
develops seek medical help.
Good Samaritan laws
Universal precautions
chain of survival
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
rescue breathing
- A sequence of actions that maximize the victim's chances of survival
In a medical emergency, a victim’s life depends on a specific series of actions called the chain of survival.

CPR can save the life of a person whose heartbeat or breathing has stopped.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CPR involves performing rescue breathing.

Rescue Breathing - Breathing for a person who is not breathing on his or her own

Basic cycle for CPR for adults is 2 breaths : 30 compressions
Remember to look,
listen, and feel for
normal breathing.
If no signs of breathing present begin rescue breaths:
1. Head tilt/chin lift.
2. Form a tight seal over mouth with your own mouth or barrier.
3. Exhale for 1 sec, make sure chest rises.
4. Remove mouth allowing air to escape, chest should fall.
5. Give second breath.
1. find end of victims sternum
2. Place heel of hand against sternum, place other hand on top interlocking fingers
3. straighten arms, lock elbows, place body directly above victim.
4. Press downwards 1.5 - 2 inches
5. repeat at a steady pace
6. after 30 compressions repeat rescue breaths.
7. Continue giving CPR until signs of life, medical personnel arrive, or exhaustion.
If the victim is an infant or a child, the cycle of CPR is still 30 compressions : 2 rescue breaths.
 However, the CPR procedure is different in several ways.

If the child is not breathing, give
five cycles of CPR—about two minutes’ worth—before making the call.

When performing rescue breathing on a baby, place your mouth over the baby’s nose and mouth at the same time—not the mouth only, as for an adult.

To perform chest compressions on an infant, position your fingers on the baby’s sternum. Press the sternum down about one-third to one-half the depth of the baby’s chest.

The chain of survival does not apply to every medical emergency. If a person is choking, for example, rescue breathing will not help because the airway is blocked.

Clutching the throat is the universal sign for choking.
If you see the signs of choking in an adult, help the person immediately by performing abdominal thrusts.
 For a choking infant, perform back blows and chest thrusts to dislodge the object.
If someone displays the symptoms of shock, call 911 right away.
Get the victim to lie down and raise legs about 12 inches
if conscious and doesn’t have an injury to the head, neck, legs, or spine.
If the victim has any wounds or other injuries, give first aid for these while you wait for help.
Some shock victims become anxious or agitated, so try to keep the person calm.
Monitor the victim’s breathing, and be prepared to start CPR immediately if breathing stops.
Loosen the victim’s clothing and try to keep him warm and comfortable. Don’t give the victim anything to eat or drink.

If the victim vomits, drools, or starts bleeding from the mouth, roll him into the recovery position.
poison control center
flash floods
emergency survival kit
Muscle and joint injuries can be minor or severe, but bone injuries are always medical emergencies.
Two common and fairly minor injuries are strains and sprains.
Treat minor strains and sprains with the P.R.I.C.E. procedure.
You can gradually begin to use the affected body part again as the pain and swelling subside.
Injuries to bones include fractures and dislocations.
Fractures and dislocations are emergencies that require immediate medical care.
1. Call 911
2. keep the victim still and calm
3. If the skin is broken, rinse it carefully, do not
disturb the bone.
4. If necessary, apply a splint to immobilize the injured body part
5. Apply an ice pack
6. have the victim lie down and
raise legs

A victim who loses consciousness for any amount of time requires medical care
Unconsciousness - The condition of not being alert or aware of your surroundings
1. Call 911
2. Check the victim’s breathing
3. Be prepared to perform CPR
If the victim is breathing and does not seem to have an injury to the spine, lay the victim down in the recovery position.
Anyone who loses consciousness or experiences memory loss or confusion because of a head injury might have a concussion.
An ice pack or cold compress applied to the bridge of the nose may also help.
- Any substance that causes injury, illness, or death when it enters the body.
A poison can be a solid, liquid, or gas.
The first step in any case of suspected poisoning is to call a poison control center.
The poison control expert will ask you questions and provide you with step-by-step instructions on how to treat the victim.
Venom: a poisonous secretion
Certain types of snakes can inject venom into the victim’s body.
Call 911
Keep the victim from moving
Keep the affected body part below chest level
Remove rings and other constricting items
Use a snakebite suction kit if one is available
Remove the stinger by scraping it off with a firm, straight-edged object
Do not use tweezers, may cause the stinger to release more venom
Wash the site thoroughly with mild soap and water
Apply ice
If you brush up against a poisonous plant, do not rub your skin.
Washing the area immediately with soap and water may prevent a reaction
Wash any clothing or other objects that have touched the plant as well
An over-the-counter cream or oral antihistamine may ease any itching
Storm Safety
It is important to pay attention to weather warnings and follow safety guidelines during a severe storm.
watch -severe weather is possible during the next few hours.
warning - severe weather has already been observed or is expected soon.
Severe Thunderstorms
- produce heavy rain and are accompanied by lightning, strong winds, and sometimes hail.
- quickly get indoors when you see sign that are approaching.
- Use 30/30 rule for lightning safety

- cause property damage
- take steps to secure your property if a hurricane is predicted in your way
- Listen to radio or TV and be prepared to evacuate
Hurricanes -
A powerful storm that generally forms in tropical areas, producing winds of at least 74 miles per hour, heavy rains, and sometimes tornadoes
Hurricanes and severe thunderstorms can produce a tornado.
A whirling, funnel-shaped windstorm that causes destruction as it advances along the ground in a narrow path
Warning signs
Darkened or greenish looking skies
A hailstorm that produces large hailstones
A large, dark, low-lying cloud that may be rotating
A loud roar like that of a freight train
What to do:
Go to the lowest level in a building, or the center of an interior room.
Stay as far away as possible from windows, doors, and outer walls.
Crouch down as close to the floor as possible.
Use your arms and hands to shield your head.
Cover yourself with a mattress or blankets.

Winter Storms
One type of hazardous winter storm is a
blizzard - A snowstorm with winds that reach 35 miles an hour or more
Whenever you are outside in a winter storm, watch out for signs of frostbite and hypothermia.
Some floods develop slowly, while flash floods develop quickly.
Flash floods - Floods in which a dangerous volume of water builds up in a short time
Listen to radio and TV
- if ordered to evacuate, secure your home and put important items to an upper floor
- Don't walk or drive
-After flood, return home only when authorities tells you it's safe to do so
- Clean everything that got wet and drink water when the authorities tell you it is safe to drink.
Earthquakes - A series of vibrations in the earth caused by a sudden movement of the earth’s crust
Wildfires are most likely to occur in especially dry regions.
People who live in areas where wildfires are common can create a “safety zone” around their homes that is free of most vegetation and other flammable materials.
If you spot a wildfire, call 911 to report it, then evacuate before the fire reaches your home.
Before you leave, shut off gas and oil supplies, clear away any flammable materials near the house, and close all doors and windows but leave the house unlocked.
Emergency supplies can help you survive.
If you ever need to evacuate your home due to an emergency, you will need an emergency survival kit.
A set of items you will need in an emergency situation
Emergency survival kit
Get inside if thunder sounds within 30 seconds of lightning; stay inside for 30 minutes after the last thunderclap.
Unusual Noises
Indicates distress (screaming cries for help)
Alarming Noises (glass breaking, screeching)
Fast Loud Noises (Crashing)

Unusual Sights
Stopped car on road side
Overturned pot on kitchen floor
Spilled pill bottle on kitchen counter

Unusual Odors
Strange Fumes

Unusual Behavior
Breathing difficulties
Clutching chest or throat
Slurred speech, confused
Profuse sweating
Skin color – very pale, flushed, blue
Inability to move body part

Recognizing Emergencies
Preparing to Act
Keep important info in a handy place.
Keep medical and insurance records up to date.
911 & Poison control numbers by phone
Emergency phone numbers right by phone
First aid kit ready for use

First Aid Kit
Gauze pads
Ace bandage
Band aids in all sizes
Scissors and tweezers
Ice bags
Medical tape

Flashlights and batteries
Alcohol wipes
CPR mask
Syrup of ipecac
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