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Canada in the 1920s

Carving a Canadian Identity
by

Mark Quan

on 28 March 2012

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Transcript of Canada in the 1920s

1920's Learning Objectives Understand how Canadian identity was shaped in the 1920s.
Have a feel for what life was like in the 1920s.
Know some of the major contribution of Canadians in the 1920s. Art Sports Technology &
Medicine Entertainment the Group of Seven Throughout the 20's they painted Canada's rugged northland in an interpretive style with strong deep colours.
People expected to see realistic, detailed landscape paintings.
Use of unusual lighting and shading. the Group of Seven The group was organized by Tom Thomson.
Emily Carr was associated with the group but not actually a member.
This new art style added to an emerging sense of Canadian identity and nationalism. Lierature Writers and novelists were also making an impact.
Stephen Leacock, Mazo de la Roche, Morley Callaghan.
Leslie McFarlane wrote 21 books in the Hardy Boys series and were widely read in Canada and the United States. Sports The decade of the 20s is sometimes referred to as “Canada’s Golden Age of Sports.”
Canadian athletes were winning medals and trophies all over the world.
From sailing, hockey, and track, Canadian identity was born in sports as well. Bluenose What do you remember of the Bluenose from yesterday's class? Percy Williams Won a gold medal in the 100-m dash in front of 40 000 spectators.
President of the US Olympic Committee called Williams “the greatest sprinter the world has ever seen.” Fanny Rosenfeld Russian born won a silver and gold in the 100-m dash and 4x100 relay.
Won medals in running and standing broad jump, the hurdles, the javelin throw, and discus. Think/Pair/Share 1928 Olympics Canada’s track-and-field team surprised their opponents by winning gold and silver medals in several events. Amsterdam, Holland. Hockey Professional hockey emerged as one of Canada’s favourite sports.
Listening to hockey on the radio became a national pastime.
Hockey was the most listened to radio program and drew Canadians together.
This popularity would expand into the United States. Impact of the Car Cars gave people the ability to move around in a wider area and with greater freedom than ever before.
Before cars, the only methods of travel were public transit and railroads.
Cars gave people the chance to determine where they went and when. Limitations There were no electric starters, you had to manually crank the engine to get the car started.
Small wheels and weak engines made cars get stuck in the mud quite often as most streets were still unpaved.
Cars did not operate in the winter as the cold temperatures froze the liquids in the engines. Leisure What the automobile did do, however, was give people a greater ability to enjoy leisure time and activities.
Summer “road trips” to vacation spots, family picnics and other leisure activities gave Canadians a chance to enjoy life.
Automobiles, however, also had negative impacts on society. The Bad Side Automobiles created noise, traffic and pollution in larger cities.
Automobiles were also used to help thieves “get away” from a robbery making localpolice forces need to get cars as well.
Governments began to legislate speed limits and other rules of the road and had to institute a licence system for drivers. What can you tell us? Medicine - Page 89
Telephone - Page 90
Airplane - Page 91
Radio - Page 92 http://prezi.com/q2fdw3nkn_mz/the-ford-assembly-line/
What about Dance Marathons Mr. Quan??? BUT I know what's on your mind! WAIT! http://prezi.com/8dr0zkmjrz7f/copy-of-toot-sweet-when-jazz-ruled-montreal/ THE END The Great Depression (The Causes of...) Pages 100 - 104 6. Buying Stocks with Credit
The bull stock market was seen as a way to get rich quick in the 1920s.
Because there was so much confidence in the market, ordinary people were provided with credit to buy stocks, all they needed was a small down payment.
This process was called “buying on margin.”
People hoped that their stocks would go up quickly, so that they could sell them, pay off their high interest loan, and pocket the profits. Central Canada Businesses that depended on international trade were hardest hit.
Some survived by drastically cutting back workers and wages.
This led to more people out of work and with less money to spend.

The Great Depression
On October 29, 1929, aka “Black Friday,” stock markets around the world crashed.
The Great Depression that followed would last a decade and affect the entire western world.
Canada was severely affected by the depression because it had expanded so rapidly in the previous decades.
Causes of the
Great Depression
Dependence on primary resources.
Over production and over expansion.
Dependence on the United States.
High Tariffs.
Too much credit buying.
Too much credit buying of stocks.

1. Dependence on
Primary Resources
Canada’s economy was dependant on the sale of resources such as wheat, pulp and paper, and minerals.
The world market was flooded with resources and the price for them began to fall.
This was the cause for the chain of events that followed.
This problem compounded in the Prairies by years of drought and hordes of grasshoppers which destroyed crops.
This not only impacted the farmers, it created a ripple effect that affected secondary industries such as flour mills and railways.
2. Over Production and
Over Expansion
Even though Canadians were doing well financially, they could not afford to buy everything that was being produced.
This over production led large stockpiles of products such as newsprint, radios and cars being stored in warehouses.
Factory owners began to panic and slowed their production.
Workers were laid off as production slowed down, this meant that people had less money to spend.

3. Dependence on the USA
The United States accounted for a large part of Canada’s imports and exports making them our most important trading partner.
When the Depression hit the United States and their industries began to collapse, they no longer needed the lumber, wheat and minerals that they had been purchasing from Canadian companies.
The money that Americans had been spending in Canadian industry dried up as well. 4. High Tariffs
Countries around the world started adopting more aggressive policies to protect and help rebuild their industries.
They began to impose high tariffs on import goods.
This was made worse by the practice of imposing retaliatory tariffs – if someone places a tariff on your wheat, then you placed a tariff on their lumber.
This effectively choked off international trade

5. Too Much Credit Buying
The Boom years idea of “Buy now, pay later” caught up with Canadians.
Credit buying allowed people to have something right away instead of saving up to buy it.
The problem came when people began to lose their jobs and could no longer make the payments.
Their furniture, cars, tractors, radios, and even their homes were repossessed by the bank. The Problem with
Buying on Margin
The problem came if your stock went down.
This is what happened on Black Tuesday.
The Stock Market began to drop and all of the people who bought on margin sold to get out before they lost all of the money they had borrowed.
As more stocks were dumped, the prices continued to fall.
By the end of the day, stocks on the Toronto and Montreal stock exchanges had dropped by more than 50%.

Beyond Canada’s Control
The Great Depression demonstrated the limits of Canada’s economy.
Canada’s economy was closely tied to those of Europe and the United States.
Much of the Boom Year’s production of wheat, pulp and paper and minerals was sold internationally.
The Great Depression also affected countries around the world; Britain, Germany, Japan, and the USA.
American bankers demanded loan repayment from European countries, as a result, they could no longer afford to purchase Canadian goods.

Conclusions
The Stock Market Crash was a contributing factor, not the only cause of the Great Depression.
There were many causes that contributed to the Great Depression – chief among them was the
drop in commodity prices.
Some parts of Canada were more deeply affected than others.
The importance of and reliance on international trade in maintaining a healthy economy in Canada became glaringly obvious.
Background 1920s started with a post-war recession.
This was followed by an economic upswing driven by primary industries such as:
Wheat Farming
Pulp and Paper
Mining
The 1920s also saw the introduction of new technology such as the automobile, the radio, and motion pictures with sound!
Regional Differences
Western Canada was hit particularly hard Between 1929 and 1933 the average income per person in Saskatchewan dropped 72%.
This happened because the Depression was accompanied by drought and hordes of grasshoppers which destroyed crops that were already dropping in value.
This drop in production was preceded by too much production which drove prices down.
Between 1929 and 1932 the price of wheat dropped from $1.60/bushel $0.38/bushel!

The West British Columbia, like the Prairie provinces was dependent on primary products and international trade.
When the markets, specifically in the secondary markets, dried up, they had nowhere to sell their goods.
This meant that workers had to be laid off and wages had to be cut.

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