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Transcript of Karyotypes Project
AP Biology A
Mitchell Karyotyping Project 47, XX, +21 Diagnosis: Down's Syndrome During mitosis, chromosomes condense and are visible with a light microscope. To analyze patients' karyotypes, these condensed chromosomes are dyed with Giemsa dye, staining regions of the chromosomes that are rich in the base pairs Adenine (A) and Thymine (T). This produces a dark band. Each band probably contains at least over a million base pairs and potentially hundreds of genes. The images we get from G banding can be used to organize the chromosomes into a karyotype. The analysis involves comparing chromosomes for their length, the placement of centromeres, and the location and sizes of G-bands to match chromosomes with their corresponding pair. Patient C's Karyotype Diagnosis Patient C died shortly after birth, with a multitude of anomalies, including polydactyly and a cleft lip. Chromosomes were obtained from a tissue sample. Patient C 47, XY, +13 Disease: Trisomy 13 Syndrome Patient B's Karyotype Diagnosis Patient B is a 28 year old male who is trying to identify a cause for his infertility. Chromosomes were obtained from nucleated cells in the patient's blood. Patient B 47, XXY Disease: Klinefelter's Syndrome Chromosomal Abnormality: Trisomy 21 (extra chromosome 21) Chromosomal Abnormality: one or more extra sex chromosomes (e.g. XXY) Chromosomal Abnormality: extra chromosome 13 Article: "Why Life Science Needs Its Own Silicon Valley" References Ghadar, F., Sviokla, J., & Stephan, D. A. (2012). Why life science needs its own silicon valley. Harvard Business Review, 90(7/8), 25-27. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/detail?sid=7d8d916d-5fb8-4008-a070-6871e8de7881%40sessionmgr4&vid=1&hid=22&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=77221896.
Karyotyping activity. (1996). Retrieved from http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/activities/karyotyping/karyotyping.html. The article explores the question - could human genomics actually become an industry? Still, further advancements need to be made before gene sequencing can be used in everyday medicine and healthcare. Government support would be particularly helpful in creating this industry and raising support.