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Transcript of 2010-28
d. They took advantage of John.
e. Advantage was taken of John.
f. John was taken advantage of.
*일반원칙 적용: [V take] [NP advantage] [PP of someone]
[V take advantage of] [NP someone]
-> e는 일반원칙에 해당하고, f는 재구규칙에 해당
-> 일반원칙 적용시 pp의 목적어였던 someone이 재구규칙을 적용하면 v의 목적어가 되어 수동문의 주어로 올 수 있음
Q. 그렇다면, 언제 재구규칙을 적용할 수 있는가?
1. Only an NP which is part of a subcategorised PP can undergo passivisation: in our terms, what this amounts to is the claim that only the head P of a Complement PP can undergo reanalysis, not the head P of an Adjunct PP.
- Chomsky, Aspects(1965, pp.105-6)
2. the Verb and the Preposition together form what Chomsky calls a 'semantic unit'
-Chomsky, Essay(1977a, p.87)
<영어 수동문의 일반원칙>
a. They took a picture of John
b. A picture was taken of John
c. *John was taken a picture of
[V take] [NP a picture] [PP of someone]
타동사의 NP 목적어가 수동문의 주어가 될 수 있음
'a picture'는 타동사 took의 목적어인 반면 'John'은 전치사 of의 목적어
그러므로 c는 비문
(1) a. They take good care of Mary.
b. Mary was taken good care of.
[V take good care of] [NP Mary]
=> 재구규칙 적용 가능 = NP2가 수동문의 주어 가능
(2) a. They deprived Jenny of the land.
b. *The land was deprived Jenny of.
[V deprive] [NP Jenny] [PP of the land]
=> 재구규칙 적용 불가 = NP2가 수동문의 주어 불가
a. I have made a mess of our friendship.
a'. Our friendship have been made a mess of
d. They took advantage of his passion.
d'. His passion was taken advantage of.
f. The children paid attention to the teacher.
f'. The teacher was paid attention to.
We know that only Complements of a V can undergo reanalysis and hence undergo passivisation. However, the PPs of b(for the presentation), c(of all his possessions), and e(for the failure of the project) are Adjunct. Therefore, NP2s in b,c, and e cannot be the subject of a passivised sentence.
thanked Mr. Brown for
robbed Jack of
blamed me for
in b', c', and e' don't form a 'semantic unit, unlike '
made a mess of
took advantage of
paid attention to
in a', d' and f'. So that, for example, English has a single-word Verb 'spoil' which means more or less the same as 'make a mess of', but no single-word counterpart of 'thanked Mr. Brown for'.
e. g. take advantage of -> exploit
pay attention to -> concentrate
b. We thanked Mr. Brown
for the presentation
b'. *The presentation was thanked Mr. Brown for.
c. Two men robbed Jack
of all his possessions.
c'. *All his possessions were robbed Jack of.
e. He blamed me
for the failure of the project.
e'. *The project was blamed me for the project.
<A>의 (1)유형은 동사가 복합어로 쓰이고, (2)유형은 V+sb+P+sth의 형태구나?
<B>에 사용된 동사 분석
a. make a mess of
b. thank A for B
c. rob A of B
d. take advantage of
e. blame A for B
f. pay attention to
정답은 b, c, e
더이상 통하지 않음!
문제는 <B>에서 <A>의 (2)유형과 같은 문장들을 찾는 것!
보기 <A>의 (1)유형과 같은 문장들
보기 <A>의 (2)유형과 같은 문장들
possible answer:) 1
possible answer :) 2