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Hanane ElSayed

on 29 March 2015

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Transcript of Bio-11.3

Chromosomes are studied using karyotypes Telomeres Nondisjunction Chromosomes and human heredity Chapter 11, lesson 3 1. The chromosomes are stained during metaphase (when they're condensed and made of two sister chromatids).
2. Identifies identical places on homologous chromosomes. 1. Protective caps that end chromosomes.
2. Made of DNA and proteins.
3. Protect the chromosomes, and might be involved in aging and cancer. 1. It's division in which the chromatids fail to separate properly.
2. Occurs in meiosis 1 or 2, and results in the wrong number of chromosomes in cells. (Trisomy or monosomy).
3. In humans it's often fatal. ex: down's, Turner's, Klinefelter's syndromes. Fetal Testing 1. Tests that are performed to observe mother and baby if they suspect having a genetic disorder. ex: Amniocentesis, Chorionic villus sampling, fetal blood sampling. Down's Syndrome 1. Down syndrome is usually the result of an extra copy of chromosome 21.
2. People with Down syndrome have distinctive facial features, are short, and have heart defects and mental disability.
3. Approximately one out of 800 children born in the United States has Down syndrome.
4. Older women have a greater chance of having a child with Down syndrome. Amniocentesis A medical procedure used in diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections,in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled Chorionic villus sampling It includes sampling the chorionic villus (placental tissue) and testing it for chromosomal abnormalities Fetal Blood sampling Fetal blood sampling is a procedure to remove a small amount of blood from the fetus during pregnancy.
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