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Transcript of Canadian Timeline
1920s-1930s 1935 HALIBUT TREATY LINOLEUM PROHIBITION
IN ONTARIO DROUGHT [ 1923 ] [ 1927] [ 1928 ] STATUTE OF
WESTMINSTER 1925  BLACK TUESDAY [ 1929 ] 1930 On-To-Ottawa
Trek [ 1935 ] 1920 [ 1920 ] * The Halibut Treaty was an agreement between
Canada and the United States made on March 2, 1923. The treaty stated fishing rights in the North Pacific Ocean. It made boundaries and showed the restrictions of where Americans and Canadians could fish so that there would be no disputes. * At first, the Us senate insisted on having a British signature. However, Prime Minister King argued saying that it was not necessary for the British to be involved because the matter was only a concern for Canada and the U.S. * The prairies were hit the hardest during the Great Depression because both tragedies occurred during the same years. The lack of rain began in 1928 when precipitation was half the annual amount. * It left the people who lived in the Southern prairies from Calgary to Swift Current with very little food. Wheat prices that were $1.90 before the Great Depression dropped to less than $0.30. There were pests such as flies, ground hogs, and rabbits who ate the crops. Since there was a lack of food, people shot rabbits and groundhogs and would eat them.
Farmers - no income due to no crops
Wheat processing companies - had no wheat to process Children - many dropped out of school to work * Heavy winds caused extreme dust storms to soon follow and by 1929, many left their homes to find a job elsewhere. Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba was then left as an abandoned dust bowl. * Prime Minister King, a liberal, was oblivious to
the disaster and refused to help because
the provinces were run by the Conservatives. * Businesses - were bankrupt
Workers - thousands became unemployed
Investors who bought on margin - were "wiped out" * The New York Stock exchange lost $16 billion that month and other stock markets, including the Toronto Stock Exchange, collapsed. * During the roaring 1920s, businesses were booming.
Cars, radios, and home appliances were invented and were bought by many people. Investing in the stock market also became popular since companies were gaining a lot of profit. Many investors started buying on margin - borrowing money to buy more stocks. * Thinking of their current success, Companies started to increase their supply and began to overproduce. However, there came a time when everyone had what they needed and no one bought their products. The supply was high but the demand was low. * Stock prices began to fall noticeably on October 24, 1929. This was known as "Black Thursday". A number of investors panicked and started selling their stocks - nearly 13 billion shares were traded that day. However, 5 days later, the price of the shares dropped so low that it was less than the price is what bought for. On October 29, 1929, famously known as "Black Tuesday", thousands of investors lost every penny they had. * Prohibition was an act that was passed that banned the production, distribution, and consumption of alcohol. It lasted in Ontario from 1916-1927. * The WCTU (Women's Christian Temperance Union) were against alcohol reasoning that it was causing violence among people, abuse in the family, and too much money was being wasted on it. They campaigned to ban alcohol and won. * Alcohol became significantly more popular among men after WW1 was over. * Prohibition caused violence and abuse rates to decline by 80%. However, the bootlegging and rum running, the illegal selling and distribution of alcohol, became popular. "Speak-easies" and "blind pigs" were disguised bars that only allowed certain people who knew their passwords to be let in. Many police officers were dishonest and took bribes in order for bootleggers to pass through borders. Yet, some were caught and put to jail. * The ending of prohibition varied in each province. Quebec was first (1919) and Prince Edward Island was last (1948). * This group started began with unemployed single men from British Columbia's relief camps. A long time union activist named Arthur H. "Slim" Evans started this protest. These men were determined to go to Ottawa and confront Prime Minister Bennett. They wanted to demand better wages and working conditions. Men called themselves "Royal-Twenty Centers" because of the twenty cents they earned each day. * Millionaire Bennett promised employment relief camps but the men had poor working conditions, bad food, and cheap furniture. The On-to-Ottawa-Trek were a group of men who could not longer bare with this and decided to strike. * However, the protesters were stopped in Regina on July 1st by RCMP officers that Bennett sent. He told the officers not allow the men to travel any further. Nevertheless, the trekkers were numerous and hard to control so a riot known as the "Regina Riot" broke out. One man died and more than 100 were injured. Bartenders - lost jobs
Bar owners - lost their businesses
Breweries - were not allowed to produce alcohol
Liquor Stores - went bankrupt
Alcoholics - were angry and protested RELATIVELY POSITIVE RELATIVELY NEGATIVE Positive Positive * In 1863 , Linoleum was invented in Britain by a man named Frederick Walton. It became famous in Canada and the US during the 1920s. Linoleum was a new type of material that was used for flooring. Linseed oil and wood flour were the main ingredients used to make the tiles. They would then have a layer of canvas and burlap added on the back. The Halibut treaty was a positive event in Canadian History because not only did it protect the Pacific Halibut Fishery, but it was the first treaty signed by Canada without British involvement. Before, Canadian government were not allowed to sign treaties alone without a British representative. However, this event won Canada the right to sign treaties independently and brought it one step closer to autonomy. * The British were against this idea as well yet submitted when King warned he would assign an independent diplomat to represent Canada. Prohibition in the 1920s had its advantages and disadvantages. Yes, it reduced alcohol consumption and violence by a significant amount, however, it also increased crime. This was due to the many bootleggers and speak-easies. In my opinion, attempting to forbid alcohol during that time was almost impossible because the majority was against it. People will always find their way around the law. The act only lasted for a short period of time so in the end, prohibition failed. Negative Negative Even though the Regina Riot was caused because of the On-to-Ottawa-Trek, overall, I think the attempted journey was worthwhile. This event showed young unemployed men standing up for the bad conditions and mistreatment they received in their relief camps. They warned Bennett that the thousands of men were under his responsibility and that something must be done. The On-to-Ottawa-Trek also indirectly led to the National Employment Commission later introduced by Prime Minister King. Bennett's ineffective response towards this event made him so unpopular that Canadians voted for the Liberals during the next election. . Positive * Linoleum became popular in Canada during the 1920's because new technology was being introduced and it was a better option that replaced ceramic tiles. Linoleum is water-resistant, durable, and biodegradable. * Linoleum was a great benefit because unlike other tiles, linoleum can last for up to 20 years and could be scrubbed without
being damaged. It was an addition to the
many appliances and tools that made homemaking easier for middle-class women and servants in the 1920's. * The Statute of Westminster was passed on December 11, 1931. It gave Canada the freedom to pass a law without the British Parliament's permission. The statue also stated Canada had to continue their allegiance to the crown, but that Canada was no longer under British regulations. * A British Foreign minister named Lord Balfour first proposed this idea of the statute during the 1926 Imperial Conference. He wanted to give Britain's Dominions independence when law making. * Prime Minister King wanted to attain self government for Canada. He accomplished this by going to the Operation of Dominion Legislation in London. After a few years of negotiating and making recommendations, the Statute was finally passed. I think that there is very little or none to say about the positive effects of this drought. It was the main reason of why people suffered the most in the prairies during the Great Depression. Not only was there lack of rain, but the drought also caused extreme sand storms which covered almost all of the prairies. Simply crossing the street was a challenge. Farmers greatly depended on their crops to survive so when the soil was not moist enough to grow them any, it was difficult for them to even get by. The mixture of an economic crisis and bad luck from mother nature made it a great struggle to live.
Overall, the drought hit all of Canada like a domino effect. Wheat processing companies became bankrupt and the employees working there lost their jobs. Considering that Canada produced half of the wheat in the world that time, a huge amount of people became unemployed and the the government lost a great deal of money they usually made from wheat. The growing use of linoleum was definitely a positive event. It was an alternative that
eased the workload for middle-class housewives. Linoleum also became inexpensive as more started to use it which allowed people to save money when
buying floor tiles. Not only was this new technology beneficial to people, but also to the environment because it was made of natural ingredients and did not release harmful toxins when disposed. Linseed oil was also a plentiful crop in the prairies so processing business provided more jobs and profit to Canadian economy. Black Tuesday was the worst economic crisis in history. Although it taught businesses that overproducing was a big mistake, the enormous impact it had on the middle-class around the world was devastating. It left thousands of Canadians unemployed and thousands drowning in debt. Some people even committed suicide for their family to receive insurance. I think that this event was an extremely negative event in history due to the desperate measures people took to change their situation. Black Tuesday was the start of the the Great depression and during those times, it was the ultimate struggle to survive. Even though the stock market crash happened on Wall Street, New York, the NYSE was what many called "the center of the universe" so when it went down, all of western civilization followed. Negative The Statute of Westminster was a celebrated moment in Canada. After the little steps towards autonomy like the battle at Vimy Ridge and the Halibut Treaty, another tie was severed from Britain because Canada now had the right to make its own laws. This is definitely a positive event because now Canada is no longer under British rules. This is an advantage when,for example, the British decide to go to war, Canada does not have to join. The statute gives freedom to the Canadian government to make their own decisions and choose which laws they think is best for Canada. The statute also allows others to view Canada as more of an independent country, rather than just a British Dominion. Positive * On June 3, 1935, 1,000 men left BC and "road the rails" which means traveling by way of freight cars. They recruited more men on the way and by the time they were in Saskatchewan, there were about 2,000 men on 100 freight cars. * Only 7 of the strike leaders including Evans was allowed to proceed to Ottawa. Although not long after meeting with Bennett, they were forced to return after he refused to give them what they wanted. The rest of the trekkers were sent back home with food provided by the Saskatchewan government. Linoleum was a great invention but it ranks last of the four positive events because it wasn't as memorable or impacted Canada as impressively as the Statute of Westminster, Halibut Treaty, or On-to-Ottawa Trek. 4 The Halibut Treaty was the second most positive event because it did not have any negative results like the On-to-Ottawa-Trek or a slight significance in history like Linoleum. Still, the Statue of West Minster was more positive because this event only gave the government gave independence in signing a treaty whereas the Statute gave independence in legislation. 2 The Statute of Westminster ranks first because of its greatest positive impact. It impacted all of Canada and eventually led to Canada’s full independence. 1 The On-to-Ottawa-Trek was more positive than Linoleum because it directly affected the lives of the unemployed men. Yet, it was less positive than the Statute of Westminster and Halibut Treaty because it did have some negative outcomes such as the Regina Riot and the men didn’t receive what they wanted from Bennett. 3 Prohibition is the least negative out of the three events because it still affected Canada in a positive way by reducing violence and abuse. On the other hand, the Drought and Black Tuesday left enormous amounts of damage and almost nothing is positive about them. 3 The Drought was second most negative out of the three events because it only directly harmed people in the prairies and was primarily a huge disaster due to the fact it was happening the same time as the Great Depression. 2 Black Tuesday is ranked the most negative because it caused the greatest destruction out of all the events. It distressed the whole world and unlike Prohibition and the Drought, there was really no way to escape the impacts of this misfortune. 1