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Mythology: Literary Genres
Transcript of Mythology: Literary Genres
Earliest Heroes Prometheus and Io He is the only Titan to side with Zeus against Cronus
He defies the gods by helping the humans
Prometheus cursed for giving fire to man
Io is seduced by Zeus and he changes her into a heifer to escape detection
Prometheus foresees Io restored and his freedom Europa Zeus spies her and turns himself into a bull
She climbs on his back and they steal away to Crete
Zeus sleeps with Europa
Europa's kids are Minos and Rhadamnthus
The continent of Europe is named for her Polyphemus One eyed monster (child of Earth), but not banished by the Olympians
Imprisons Odysseus and his men
They only escape after blinding him Flower Myths Narcissus: Self-obsessed man who breaks the hearts of others (including Echo). Punished and only can love himself.
Hyacinth: Takes discus to the head. Serves as a tribute to him.
Adonis: Fought over, eaten by bear. Flower comes up where his blood landed. Earth - Also known as Gaea or Mother Earth. She is the first being to emerge in the universe, born somehow out of the forces of Love, Light, and Day. She gives birth to Heaven, who then becomes her husband. This story is vastly different from the Christian creation myth, in which a deity exists first and then fashions the Earth.
Heaven - Also known as Ouranos or Father Heaven. Born out of Earth, he becomes Earth’s husband and proceeds to father all the original creatures of the earth, including the Titans, the Cyclopes, and the Furies. Introduction to
Greek Mythology The original gods, children of Heaven and Earth, and parents of the six original Olympians. Defeated by Zeus and his siblings in a war for control of the universe, most of the Titans are imprisoned in the bowels of the earth. Prometheus, who sides with Zeus, is not imprisoned. The Titans Cronus becomes the ruler of the Titans. He swallows each of his children as his wife Rhea gives birth to them. Rhea is able to save one, Zeus, who forces Cronus to vomit up his siblings, with whom he defeats the Titans for control of the universe. Cronus and Rhea Zeus’s son by the beautiful princess Danaë. Danaë’s father, forewarned that Perseus will someday kill him, locks the infant and his mother in a trunk and casts it into the sea. Perseus survives, comes of age, and sets out to kill the monster Medusa and bring back her head. As prophesied, he kills his grandfather, though unwittingly, by hitting him with a stray discus. Perseus The son of King Aegeus of Athens and a quintessential Athenian hero. Theseus is the model citizen: a kind leader, good to his friends and countrymen. Theseus does have his shortcomings, however: he abandons Ariadne, and later doubts his own son, which leads to his tragic demise. Theseus Hercules - Another famous Greek hero, a son of Zeus who rises to Olympus at his death. Hercules is renowned for his incredible strength and bravery, but he lacks intelligence and self-control. Most of his adventures begin with a horrible mistake that he makes and then attempts to fix. His most famous feats, the Twelve Labors of Hercules, are the punishment he receives for murdering his family in a fit of madness. Hercules Atalanta is the greatest female hero, mostly for her role in the Calydonian Hunt—a great hunt for a vicious wild boar Artemis has sent to terrorize the kingdom of a king who forgot to pay her tribute. A large group of heroes hunts the boar, but it is Atalanta who finally causes its death. She first wounds it, and a warrior named Meleager, who is hopelessly in love with her, delivers the mortal blow. His love for her, however, results in his death. Meleager’s two uncles insult Atalanta, so he kills them. In turn, Meleager’s mother destroys him by burning the magical log that determines the length of his life. Atalanta It's All Greek to Me The Great Heroes
Before the Trojan War The origins of the war (in the Iliad) started at the wedding of King Peleus and the nereid (sea-nymph) Thetis. They had invited almost all the gods to their wedding. But they did not invite Eris, goddess of strife. She was angry and she threw a golden apple among the guests on which was written "To the Fairest". The goddesses Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite caught the apple at the same time and fought over who was the most beautiful. Because they could not end the fight by themselves, they went to Zeus, the king of the gods. Zeus chose Paris to decide, and give the apple to who he wanted. Each of the three goddesses offered Paris gifts so he would choose her. Hera offered Paris all of Asia. Athena offered him wisdom. Then Aphrodite offered him the love of the most beautiful woman. Paris gave the apple to Aphrodite. Of course, Aphrodite had not thought about the fact that the most beautiful woman, Helen, Queen of Sparta, already had a husband (King Menelaus of Sparta). But Aphrodite had her son, Eros, shoot Helen with a golden arrow and fall in love with Paris. Then the pair left for Troy. Menelaus, Helen's husband, declared war on Troy to retrieve his queen. This began the Trojan war. The Trojan War
Paris - A son of King Priam of Troy, Paris unwittingly starts the Trojan War by judging Aphrodite the fairest of all the goddesses. Aphrodite arranges for Paris to marry the beautiful Helen, but Helen is already married. Helen’s kidnapping leads the Greeks to unite against Troy and sparks the decade-long Trojan War.
Helen - The most beautiful woman who has ever lived, Helen is promised to Paris after his judgment of Aphrodite. Her kidnapping causes the Trojan War. Helen is peculiarly silent in the Iliad, living with Paris for ten years before returning home with Menelaus, her original husband. Helen is treated as more of an object than a person.
Hector - Another son of King Priam, Hector is the bravest and most famous of the Trojan warriors. Unlike his brother Paris, he faces challenges with great strength and courage.
Aeneas - The only great Trojan warrior who survives the war, Aeneas is protected by Aphrodite, his mother. He flees Troy, carrying his father on his back and leading his child by the hand.
Agamemnon - One the great kings who leads the Greeks in the Trojan War. Agamemnon’s stubbornness toward Achilles almost costs the Greeks the war, and his cold-hearted sacrifice of his daughter ultimately costs him his life.
Achilles - The most famous Greek in the Trojan War, whose strength and bravery are unrivaled. Achilles is selfless, courageous, and devoted to the gods—he is the finest Greek warrior. His mother, the sea-nymph Thetis, has made him invulnerable everywhere except his heel, and that is where he is struck and killed. Characters of the Trojan War The Heroes of
the Trojan War The war went on for ten years. The Greeks won by building a big wooden horse. This became named the Trojan Horse. Some Greek people hid inside the horse, and the rest put the horse on the shore and left in their boats. The Trojans saw the horse and thought that the Greeks had surrendered (stopped trying to win the war). They thought that the horse was a present. They dragged the horse into Troy and celebrated their victory. When night fell, the Greeks hiding inside the horse opened the city gates and set fire to the houses. The Greeks who had left in their boats, had just pretended to leave to trick the Trojans. They had actually just hidden behind islands. They returned and won the war. The trick was thought up by Odysseus (or Ulysses as he was also known), King of the small island of Ithaca. The Trojan Horse