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Catholic Church

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by

Annie Matano

on 16 October 2014

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Transcript of Catholic Church

Catholic Church
1300-1500s
Catholic Church
Power Over Lords
Rich lords feared Church
Were taught that if they disobeyed bishops, they would be forced out of church
Church leaders used power to gain money from lords; said it was their "duty" if they wanted to go to heaven
Kings/lords provided land in exchange for church services
Was the duty of every political authority to support and sustain church
Taxes
The Church organized a monthly tax system
People were taught and believed that you could only go to heaven if the church let you; this could be achieved by offering money and goods
Taxes paid in coin by nobles or anyone who had money
Peasants paid using grain, animals, or parts of their land
Failure to pay taxes, they were told, would lead to their souls going to Hell
Church was on King's council and Gov.
Heavy influence on decisions regarding financial, political, religious, education, and matters concerning war
If the church religiously claimed that a decision made by King and Council was wrong, such a decision would be vetoed
Many changes were made that benefit the church
Education
Conflict Between King and Church
How the Catholic Church Came to Power
Roman Cath. Church grew in power during Middle Ages-kingdoms started to fall apart
Unifying force during time of political disunity
Population growth; grand cathedrals had to be built to accommodate amount of people
Church leaders thus grew in power; played roles in government and king's council
Most people already influenced due to Catholic upbringing
People trusted churches; they were considered a "safe haven" during times of chaos
Functions and Practices
Importance and Influence
Power Over Decisions
What were the Crusades
Attempt by european monarchs or Popes to reclaim the city of Jerusalem (the Holy City)
The Muslims had taken over the Holy land and it was the Catholic Church's goal to get it back
A war was held between the Catholics and the Muslims over Jerusalem
Why was Jerusalem so important?
Jerusalem was a very important city to the Catholics
It was where Jesus Christ grew up, preached, and was crucified
The land held an extreme importance to the people because many religious events had happened within the land
Why the Muslims wanted their land
The war could have been a lot simpler if the Muslims had been willing to give up their land, but they weren't
The Muslims also considered Jerusalem their Holy land and refused to let it go
Origin of Word?
The word crusade came from the French word "crux" which means cross (the symbol of Jesus)
The crusaders wore a large red cross on their garments and on their shields
Why did they fight?
Obviously the Catholics wanted the land were Jesus grew up on back from the Muslims but they also believed that killing the Muslims was the will of God
They felt nothing wrong with killing those people and in fact they thought if they were in the war that all of their sins would be healed and they would go to heaven
The Crusades
The Roles of the Church
Popes
- Were the head of the church. They created all rules for the church and ran it. Citiznens gave all the power to the popes and trusted them to run the church which made them very special people

Monks
- They devoted their lives to prayer. They Spent all their time carrying out the jobs needed to keep the church running as well as performing religious rituals.

Friars
- Were another type of monk but Friars focused more on preaching and spreading the word of God than monks. In Latin the word "friar" meant brother which really shows how important these people were in citizens life
The Seven Sacraments
Baptism
- Being brought into the catholic church and faith
Eucharist
- First time to receive the Eucharist (the body and blood). Known to nourish the soul and bring us closer to God
Reconciliation
- The practice of asking God for forgiveness
Confirmation
- Mature Christian commitment.
Marriage
- Devoting love and life to another person
Holy Orders
- Process of serving the church and becoming monk, friar, or pope
Anointing of the Sick
- A ritual of healing both physical and mental sicknesses
Selection of Pope, Monks and Friars
When a Pope would die no one would be left to choose a new Pope or friars and monks
This is where the Kings and nobles would intervene with the Catholic Church
The Kings and Nobles were responsible for choosing a relative or another person to take over the job
This created may problems for the church because those who were chosen weren't always religious and sometimes didn't care about their responsibilities
These people didn't pay attention to the rules or help the poor which destroyed the church in ways
The Cluny Monastery
Founded in 910
Very important and prominent Monastery in Eastern France
In this monastery the Church had even more power than before
Instead of the Kings and nobles choosing those who would be in charge of the church (monks, friars, and Popes) the Church itself would
This meant that monks and friars only had to listen to Popes and abide by them not the Kings and nobles
Importance to People
The catholic church was a tremendously important thing to people
Worship gave citizens faith, trust, hope, and unity
No town ever failed to have catholic church in it
It was the center of all towns and the majority of people were catholic
Good Influence
Education
- before Catholicism most people could not read and or write but after Catholicism was created many children were educated and learned to read and write

Music
- The music during medieval time (encouraged by the church) unified them and they sang it together

Worship/ Unity
- Religion gave people something to worship and put the trust and faith in. Having a God gave people hope made them feel safer
Bad Influence
Crusades
- The crusades was a very bad influence of religion. People were so devoted to their God that it lead to fighting.

Conflict of Power
- The conflict of power between nobles and the church was another bad influence of religion because it just lead to fighting
Power Over Society
Heresy
What is Heresy?
belief or opinion contrary to orthodox religious (especially Christian) doctrine
Dealing with Heresy
In 1129 in an attempt to stop Heresy a council of Bishops started a church court
If the church was suspicious of anyone being heretic they would accuse them and give them a whole month to confess to their sin
Going against the church was a tremendous deal back then and anyone who did was greatly punished
Those who confessed
If the person being accused confessed to being heretic within the one month time frame they were given punishment
The would get whipped and/or sent to prison for there wrong doings
After a designated amount of time the would receive their membership to the church back and would be set free
Those who didn't confess
If the person accused refused to confess within in the one month time frame they would have to go through much worse torture then those who did confess
They were brought to trial with one witness and if there was enough evidence that the person was guilty of heredity they would be greatly punished for both not confessing and being heretic
They would get burned at the stake or whipped and left to die
Pope Gregory
Pope Gregory
He was both a powerful politician and religious leader (he was the pope)
He worked with separating the Kings and nobles power from the church
He was also responsible for taking away the ability for bishops and priests to marry
He had a lot of authority over the church because of his position and he had two main goals to achieve while he was pope
Goal 1
Wanted to rid the Church from control of Kings and nobles
The nobles and the church was required to work together to control the land which created a lot of conflict so it was best to decrease the level of contact the church and nobles had
The church did not want the nobles to have any control over their system so Pope Gregory got rid of the system in which the nobles chose those who served the church
Goal 2
Pope Gregory wanted to increase the power the pope had over the Church officials such as the monks and the friars
This caused the Kings to loose even more power than before which they were not happy with
Monks and friars no longer had to listen to the king but only the Pope
Gregory very strongly believed that the pope was above all Kings and nobles
Pictures
The church would be the one to decide your role
Religious ceremonies would be held to grant you King, Vassal, Knight, and things of importance
People made sacrifices for the church such as not eating meat on Fridays
Every Sunday people would attend mass
Church leaders were not only trusted with running the church but also school and hospitals,
Schools
Once the Church grew in power, they offered education to people of Catholic faith
Benefited them financially and to spread faith
Schools were set up by parish clergy and were inside the church
Lessons were taught by Friars
Seven subjects taught: Rhetoric, Astronomy, Arithmetic, Logic, Music, Grammar, and Geometry
Students paid a fee
Who They Taught
Taught nobles to work in the church
Focused quite a bit on nobles because they funded the church largely
Trained gov. workers, lawyers, and teachers
As education started spreading more and more, more teachers became necessary
If you could not pay the fee, you could not attend school (unless special compromise was made)
Universities
Students and teachers formed union to create universities
Spread throughout Europe quickly
Universities brought together people devoted to learning; less financially corrupt
Head of Univ. were usually church officials
Wealthy sponsors provided money for boarding houses
The Nobles
Large sponsors toward education
Usually provided materials or boarding houses for schools
Promoted reading and writing as a necessity among the wealthy
Hired students from schools to tutor children sometimes
Noble sons were sent to learn to become priests in the church
Women's Education
Very few women were educated; the system was sexist
The few that were educated were nobles; daughters of lords or kings
Were tutored privately
Some girls were "permitted" to attend their brother's lessons
Women in nobility usually had obligations that required literacy
Peasant girls or children in general were usually not educated
Nuns were only religiously educated; some were literate
The King and the Pope
Pope and King; both influential men
King: influence militarily and politically
Pope: influence religiously and politically
The immense powers of the two often clashed
Kings believed they had the right to the power the Popes had
The Pope would sometimes not agree with the King's decisions and vice versa; lead to strife between King and Church
Pope Gregory VIII and Henry IV
Famous conflict between the two
When Henry IV was crowned he was very young (15) and power hungry
His actions were disapproved by the church
King Henry wanted to choose church officials
Pope Gregory, who claimed that the church was the supreme power on Earth, said only he could choose church officials
Full transcript