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A&P Chapter 4

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Leia Neft

on 13 November 2014

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Transcript of A&P Chapter 4

Thyroid cartilage

Supra-and infrahyoid muscles
Raise and lower larynx
Change length of vocal folds
Intrinsic laryngeal muscles
Responsible for fine adjustments associated with
control of phonation

The Larynx
Suspended for a broad string of muscles
Muscles work together
Muscles achieve complex motions required for speech and non-
speech

Interaction of Musculature

Intrinsic laryngeal muscles (cont’d)
Major types of Intrinsic muscles
Abductors
Tensors: 
Relaxers
Auxillary musculature

Intrinsic laryngeal muscles
Muscles that have both origin and insertion on
laryngeal cartilages
Innervation is by vagus nerve
Vagus nerve responsible for sensation and motor
function in the thorax, neck, and abdomen

Muscles of the Larynx

Larynx is surgically removed
Voicing source for speech is lost
Difficult to expectorate phlegm


Laryngectomy

First locate the Adam’s apple or thyroid
notch
Place index finger on the notch
Use thumb and second finger on either side
Bring index finger slightly down
Feel the prominent thyroid angle

Palpation of the Larynx

Comprised of three unpaired cartilages
Cricoid cartilage
Thyroid cartilage
Epiglottis cartilage
Refer to Figure 4-1: Various views and
components of the larynx.

Other structures:
Hyoid bone
Epiglottis


Average length of larynx
Adult males: 44 mm
Adult females: 36 mm

Musculo-cartilaginous structure
Located at the top of the last ring of the
trachea
Adjacent to cervical vertebrae 4 through 6


Structure of the Larynx

Produces phonation
Clamps airway in response to possible
intrusion by foreign objects
Food or liquids
Rapidly expels foreign matter away from
opening of airway

Biological Functions of Larynx

Source of voice for speech
Respiration provides energy that allows phonaiton

Phonation

Also known as voicing
phonation is the voice for speech.
Product of vibrating vocal folds
Occurs within the larynx


Phonation

Anatomy of Phonation

Chapter 4

Make a model larynx
Include:
Cricoids
Arytenoids
Thyroid
Hyoid
Epiglotis
Vocal folds
False vocal folds
Trachea
intrinsic muscles
Larynx Project





Sits atop the arytenoids

Corniculate cartilages

Cricoid Cartilage

Elevation of the tongue
Elevates the larynx
Increases the tension of the cricothyroid
Keeps articulatory system from driving phonatory
mechanism

Interaction of Musculature (Cont’d)

Laryngeal muscular system works as a
unit
Laryngeal elevation
Laryngeal depression
Counters laryngeal elevation with controlled antagonistic
tone

Extrinsic laryngeal muscles (cont’d)
Major types of Extrinsic muscles
Hyoid elevators
Laryngeal elevators
Hyoid depressors
Taryngeak depressors

Muscles of the Larynx (Cont’d)

Extrinsic laryngeal muscles
Muscles that have one attachment on a
nonlaryngeal structure
Elevate or depress the larynx
Make fine adjustments in the vocal mechanism
Important in swallowing

Muscles of the Larynx (Cont’d)

Intrinsic laryngeal muscles (cont’d)
Major functions
Open the vocal folds
Close the vocal folds
Tense the vocal folds
Relax the vocal folds

Cessation of activities such as swimming
Patient undergoes a tracheostomy
(removal of trachea)
Must breathe through a tracheostoma

Bring finger up to the top of the thyroid
notch
Feel the corpus of the hyoid bone
Feel articulation of the hyoid and thyroid
Feel the lower margin of the thyroid
Place thumb at junction of thyroid and cricoid
Palpate the entire larynx

Vocal folds permit a person to hold their
breath
Plays role in swimming
Assists in lifting
Important in childbirth
Plays role in defecation

Biologic Functions of Larynx (Cont’d)

Sensitive to external environment
Cigarette smoke and other pollutants
Sensitive to internal environment
Dry tissue harmful to vocal folds
Causes contact ulcers and vocal nodules
Therapy involves humidification, fluids, and
medication

Vocal Fold Treatment

Subglottal
Area below vocal folds

Five layers of tissue
Glottis
Space between the folds
Most important laryngeal space for speech
Defined by the variable sphincter that allows
voicing


Vocal Folds

Uses voiceless and voiced sounds
Voiceless sounds
Produced without use of vocal folds
Voiced sounds
Produced by action of vocal folds

Spoken Communication

Hyoid Bone

Arytenoid cartilages

Composed of three paired cartilages
Arytenoid cartilage
Corniculate cartilage
Cuneiform cartilage

Structure of the Larynx (Cont’d)

Embedded within the aryepiglottic folds

Cuniform cartilages

Larynx:
Is an extension of the trachea; also known as the voice box
Function: To protect the lungs
Secondary function: Phonation
Rests just avove the trachea in the front (anterior) portion of the neck
Is a muscular, membranous, and cartilaginous structure
Is suspended by muscles and ligaments attached to a V-shaped bone called the hyoid bone
Epiglottis:

A small flap of tissue that covers the entrance to the larynx
It automatically closes when swallowing, thus preventing food and drink from entering the airways
Vocal Folds:

A pair of thin muscles in the larynx
The vibrations of the vocal folds are the sources of voice
Abductors:
Muscles that separate
Vocal folds are open
There IS speech
With the vocal folds in an abducted position, the air supplied by the respiratory mechanism travel past the level of the vocal folds in an unvibrated manner
This is essential for the production of unvoiced consonants
Adductors:
Muscles that move inward
Vocal folds are closed
There is NO speech
When the vocal folds are closed (adducted), the flow of air supplied by the respiratory mechanism is stopped
Full transcript