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The Nervous System

Grade 8 ~ Organ Systems Project
by

Ethan Mendell

on 10 October 2013

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Transcript of The Nervous System

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM By: Veronica, Nicole, and Ethan Diagnosis impacted Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease is related to the well-known “MAD COW DISEASE”. It’s also similar to other degenerative brain diseases, like Alzheimer’s, except its symptoms progress a lot faster. It’s caused by a malformed protein called a prion. The brain tissue around the prions, eventually die because they cause the other normal proteins to fold abnormally, disabling their ability to perform their job. When a large amount of the brain cells die, they create visible holes in the brain. Think of it like a sponge. Then the "spongified" parts of the brain would not be able to function, along with the parts of the body that that section of the brain controls. Usually it starts off with headaches, dizziness, loss of coordination, then to severe dementia, seizure and eventually DEATH! What is Creutzfeldt - Jakob Disease? Prevention Importance of Technology and
Its Impact on Cell Research about the Nervous System Importance ofTecnology
for Diagnosing CJD Who Does CJD Affect? Currently, there are no known treatment that can cure CJD. Scientists have tested drugs, such as steroids, interferon, antiviral agents, and antibiotics, to see if it can control CJD. Sedative drugs can help relieve pain when it occurs, while muscle relaxants can help calm muscle spasms and jerks. Other drugs are also being studied, but so far, none of the treatments have shown any consistent benefit in humans.

By providing the patient with a safe environment, it will control aggressive or agitated behaviour. Nurses, volunteer services, homemakers, or adult protective services can also help take care of the patient. In severe cases, getting legal help with advance directives or powers of attorney can make it easier to choose the right decisions about diseased patient.

The current treatment is to relieve the patient's symptoms and to make them as comfortable as possible, like changing the position of the patient frequently to prevent bedsores. Catheters and IVs are used later when they cannot function by themselves. You will learn more in the technology section. Treatment Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease appears between ages 20-70, and symptoms usually start at 50. In Classic CJD, the average start of the disease is 65 or older. In Variant CJD, it can be any age because it is determined by when you made contact with the infected product like meat tainted with mad cow (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, BSE). CJD affects both women and men equally. Although CJD is fairly similar to other degenerative brain disorders, they are rarely confused with them because CJD’s symptoms progress so quickly. But doctors need to perform tests and scans to confirm their diagnosis.

Some symptoms of CJD are:
Blurred vision (sometimes)
Confusion, disorientation, or hallucinations
Dementia that occurs over a few weeks or months
Lack of coordination (for example, stumbling and falling)
Muscle stiffness
Muscle twitching
Seizures
Nervous, jumpy feelings
Personality changes
Sleepiness
Speech impairment

Some instruments that doctors use to diagnose CJD are:
CT scan of brain
Blood test to rule out other diseases
Electroencephalogram EEG
MRI of brain, spinal tap to test for protein
Autopsy or biopsy to confirm after death

*You will learn more about these in the technology section Unfortunately, there is no known way to prevent irregular CJD, but to prevent CJD that is caused by medical examination or treatment, doctors can use synthetic Human Growth Hormones, destruct surgical instruments used on brain or nervous tissue of someone with known or suspected CJD, and/or perform spinal taps or lumbar punctures.

To help ensure safety of blood supply, people with a risk of exposure to CJD aren't allowed to donate blood. This includes people who have a biological relative who has been diagnosed with CJD, received a blood transfusion in UK between 1980 and present, or have injected bovine insulin at any time since 1980.

Risks of CJD from vaccines or insulin are estimated to be extremely low:
Even though some parts of cows (blood, enzymes, amino acids) are used to grow bacteria and viruses needed to make certain vaccines, they are not all grown in cattle parts.
Insulin sold in US does not come from cattle, but you can import beef insulin from other countries. However, there is no way to guarantee safety of imported insulin.
Most countries already have strict rules for taking care of infected cows to prevent transmitting CJD to humans. Prevention Treatment Why Is Technology Important? Currently there is not real cure for CJD, but there have been cases where patients with Variant CJD have been injected directly in the brain, with drugs (steroids) and were able to live longer. There also is no real treatment that would make the disease any better. Drugs like clonazepam and sodium valproate may help relieve myoclonus (muscle twitching). Also, doctors try to make the patient as comfortable as possible. When they start loosing function of their body, catheters, which are small tubes used to drain body cavities, are put into the bladder, and when the patients lose the ability to eat, IVs are inserted to provide nutrients so they don't starve. How has Technology
the Diagnosis, Treatment, and
Prevention of CJD? EEG IV Brain tissue affected
with CJD Specified Risk Materials in cows Function and Importance of the Nervous System Cells in the Nervous System The main function of the nervous system is to send signals from one cell to another, or from one part of the body to another. Although the body has multiple ways to signal itself, the nervous system provides a precise point to point signal.

The nervous system is very important to humans because it is what makes our sight, smell, hearing, touch, and taste possible. Also, since your brain plays a major role in the organ system, without this system, you could not do any voluntary movements or motion... You would not even exist! The nervous system is the "control centre" of our body. Technology is extremely important when diagnosing nervous system diseases because it makes it possible to find out the type of disease and perform the correct treatment before it takes over. Because the nervous system is so delicate, any disease can lead to the body ending up useless. An example is rabies where the symptoms don’t appear until a few weeks before death. Technology has improved the diagnosis of CJD because there are MRIs and CT scans able to create cross-sectional images where you can actually see the holes, when before they didn’t have them. All About
The Nervous System Diagram of the Nervous System Importance of Technology
for Treating CJD Tonsils Dorsal Root Ganglion A Stoma with a Catheter inserted
to drain bladder Lumbar Puncture The nervous system makes it possible for you to have these senses The first test they can do to diagnose is a blood test where they try to find the malformed protein. If they do find this then it is possible to slow down the disease by taking special steroids and other drugs.

Another test is a CT scan which is an X-ray technique that produces cross-sectional images of the inside of your body. It cannot diagnose any prion disease but it can rule out other types of disease similar or related.

An electroencephalogram (EEG) uses electrodes placed on your scalp. It measures your brain's electrical activity. In individuals with both Classic and Variant CJD, they show a characteristically abnormal pattern.

An especially useful tool in diagnosing all brain disorders is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This technique uses radio waves and a magnetic field to also create cross-sectional images. The reason it is especially important is because it can produce high resolution pictures of the brain's white matter and gray matter.

Lumbar punctures are also very useful in diagnosing brain diseases because it tests the cerebral spinal fluid which surrounds your brain and spinal cord. In this test the doctor uses a needle to withdraw a small amount of fluid from your lower back. Then they test it to find the abnormal protein, indicating CJD. Doctors may perform many exams and tests to diagnose CJD. In the early stage, nervous system and mental examination will show any memory problems and changes in other mental functions. In the later stages, motor system examinations can show an increased reflex response, muscle twitching and spasms, strong startled responses, and weakness and loss of muscle tissue. The only way doctors and medical workers can confirm the diagnosis of CJD is by a brain biopsy or an autopsy, but the correct diagnosis of CJD will not increasingly help the patient because the disease is fatal. The nervous system is made up of the brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves. The nervous tissue is composed of glial cells and neurons. Glial cells surround and provide insulation for the neurons, while the neurons project axons.

In your brain, there are already more than 100 billion neurons. All neurons are made up of three main parts. They are dendrites, the cell body, and axons. Dendrites are in charge of receiving all the information from other cells and transmitting information to the cell body. The cell body contains the nucleus and other important organelles. The axons help conduct the messages away from the cell.

There are three types of neurons:

Sensory neurons have long dendrites and short axons. They are responsible for carrying messages from your sensory receptors to your central nervous system.
Motor neurons have long axons and short dendrites. They are in charge of transmitting any information from the central nervous system to muscles. They are in charge of your movement.
Interneurons connect neurons together. They are only found in the central nervous system. It helps relay any impulses the sensory and motor neurons have. Although, there is no confirmed and proper way of treating patients with CJD, technology still plays an important role for the treatment of this disease. For example, drugs are technology, and for the treatment of this disease, any many other diseases too, steroids can help slow it down. Catheters and IVs may be inserted into the patient's body. Without these new technological inventions, CJD and most diseases, cannot be well-treated. MRI Thanks for watching! BYEEEE :D Diagnosis COW. We hope you learned lots!
*don't go around eating raw beef There is no way of preventing Classic CJD, although some medications are shown to slow down the progression of the disease.

Classic CJD may not be preventable but Variant CJD is. Scientists have taken steps to prevent BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy)-infected tissue from entering food supply by monitoring the location where the cows are farmed, what ingredients were in their feed and taking action immediately if they did find a case. An example on what could happen if they didn't would be the mad cow epidemic in Europe in the 1990's. Weak cows were killed off and grinded back into feed for the cattle, but what they didn't know was the cows had BSE causing all the other cows eating the feed to contract the disease too. They had to kill all the cows, infected or not, to prevent the disease from spreading further.

Here are some steps you can take to lower your chance of contracting Variant CJD:
Research the source of meat on the internet
Avoid eating parts like brain, spinal cord, or intestines (which are parts that will most likely carry the disease)
Cook meat thoroughly
Check on donor organs because the carrier could have had CJD
Discuss with the surgeon on the use of medical instruments, to prevent the spreading of the disease

The risks of CJD from vaccines and insulin are estimated to be extremely low. Even though parts of cows, such as blood, enzymes, amino acids, are used to grow bacteria and viruses needed to make certain vaccines, not all vaccines are grown in cattle parts. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends companies producing vaccines, that they should use cattle parts only from low-risk countries. Insulin can be sold in U.S.A. since it does not come from cattle. Nevertheless, people can still import beef insulin from other countries. There is no way to guarantee safety of imported insulin so you should talk to doctor about best way to obtain insulin from sources outside U.S.A.
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