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Transcript of Metabolic Processes
Abby + Lauren
How does the use of stem
cells to treat degenerative
diseases affect the metabolic
processes of body cells?
STEM CELLS: non-specialized cells that have two defining properties: the ability to differentiate into other cells and the ability to self-regenerate .
 Kochar, P. G. (2004, December 1). What Are Stem Cells?. What Are Stem Cells?. Retrieved March 5, 2014, from http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/stemcell/overview.php
 N. (2013, June 1). Result Filters. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved April 10, 2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23715547
 Department of Health and Human Services. (2014, April 10). About FDA. What are stem cells? How are they regulated?. Retrieved May 22, 2014, from http://www.fda.gov/aboutfda/transparency/basics/ucm194655.htm
 Khan, F. A. (2014). Biotechnology in medical sciences. Boca Raton : Taylor and Francis Group.
Embryonic Stem Cells
Tissue / Adult Stem Cells
Tissue / Adult Stem Cells
Metabolism: the sum of all anabolic and catabolic processes in a cell.
What effects does the use of stem cells to treat degenerative diseases have on metabolism?
A degenerative disease is a disease in which the function or structure of the affected tissues or organs will increasingly deteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating habits. Degenerative diseases are often contrasted with infectious diseases.
Lou Gehrig's, Huntington's, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's Disease, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and osteoarthritis...
found in blastocyst (very early stage embryo, 50-100 cells)
pluripotent (can make all types of specialized cells)
from eggs that were fertilized
(or another artificial
found in body tissues
multipotent (can make multiple types of specialized cells, but not all types)
stem cells found in the umbilical cord and peripheral blood (hematopoietic) as well as in bone marrow (mesenchymal), muscle, heart, gut, and brain 
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPS)
cancer of the blood and bone marrow
white blood cells (leukocytes) develop abnormally
in many forms of acute leukemia, the abnormal white blood cells (blasts) accumulate in the bone marrow and prevent white blood cells from defending against disease and infection in the body
requires immediate and intensive treatment
treatment options include chemotherapy, steroids, or haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT)
chemotherapy is the most effective, unfortunately it damages the healthy blood-forming cells in the bone marrow
haematopoietic stem cells transplants replace the damaged cells
blood-forming and immune cells are collected from the blood / bone marrow of a healthy donor with the same tissue type of the patient to fight the leukemia
adult cells, such as skin cells, are reprogrammed by genes found in stem cells
they are reprogrammed to act as embryonic stem cells, having the ability to develop into all types of specialized cells (man-made)
there is less of a chance of rejection by the immune system
hope to use them in transplantations 
Recent studies on metabolism in stem cells have revealed a shift in the balance of glycolysis, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative stress, during the maturation of adult stem cells and reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency 
TYPE 1 DIABETES
requires daily insulin injections
pancreatic beta cells damaged by the immune system can no longer produce insulin
instead of pancreas / islet of Langerhans transplants, stem cells could be used
stem cells could be differentiated into beta cells
be used to prevent diabetes
repair the tissues that diabetes compromise over time
IN THE FUTURE
 Diabetes Center. (n.d.). What is Stem Cell Research?. Stem Cell Research. Retrieved May 17, 2014, from http://www.joslin.org/diabetes-research/stem_cell_research.html
 Pattison, S. (2011, December 16). Type 1 Diabetes: how could stem cells help?. EuroStemCell. Retrieved April 7, 2014, from http://www.eurostemcell.org/factsheet/type-1-diabetes-how-could-stem-cells-help
 EuroStemCell. (n.d.). Introducing Stem Cells. eurostemcell. Retrieved June 1, 2014, from http://www.eurostemcell.org/files/Introducing_SCs_slides_Jan2012.pdf
 Simon. (2013, January 1). Nutrient-sensing pathways and metabolic regulation in stem cells. JCB . Retrieved April 13, 2014, from http://jcb.rupress.org/content/203/1/23.full
80% of the dopamine producing-neurons in the brain die
dopamine is secreted from the substantia nigra and helps in smooth and coordinated body movements
dopamine-producing cells are need to reverse Parkinson's Disease 
WHAT IS PARKINSON'S DISEASE
Stem Cell Treatment:
drug levodopa (L-dopa)
converted to dopamine in the body
less successful over time
more side effects
THE FUTURE OF STEM CELLS
Scientist would like to...
1. take (skin) cells from the patient's body
2. make iPS cells
3. use iPS cells to grow the specialized cells needed to recover from the disease
* still a long way to go
•Understand how diseases develop (disease modeling)
•Test drugs in the laboratory 
Embryonic stem cells have been reported to differentiate into dopamine-producing neurons in culture 
Stem cells exhibit precise regulation for self-renewal and differentiation to sustain tissue homeostasis in an organism
This is modulated by metabolic changes and modifications of nutrient-sensing pathways such as mTOR and AMPK
It is becoming increasingly clear that stem cells inhibit oxidative phosphorylation in favor of aerobic glycolysis for energy production 
the effects on metabolism...
moral / ethical / social issues
embryonic stem cells have the potential to become a human
- some see embryos as tissue; others as babies
IPS cells are an alternative to embryonic stem cells