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History of Special Education

A Closer Look at the Educational Ideas and Philosophies of the Severely Mentally Handicapped, Autistic Students, Gifted Students, and Occupational Therapy

Malia Dickson

on 25 October 2016

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Transcript of History of Special Education

Leta Hollingworth
Basic Facts:
Educational Philosophy:
Impact on Special Education:

According to the 2010 Census, 2.8 million school children in the US reported having a learning disability. A learning disability is a condition that gives rise to difficulties in acquiring knowledge and skills at the level expected of those of the same age.
Five percent of children living in urban areas in the United States report having some form of learning disability. 4.9 percent of children in urban areas in North Carolina have a learning disability.
6.3 percent of children who live outside of urban areas in the United States report having a learning disability. 7.7 percent of children in North Carolina not from urban areas report having a learning disability.
North Carolina requires that all high school level classes for students with mental disabilities follow a Standard Course of Study that caps each class at a maximum of 14 students.
During the 2011-2012 school year, 7.1 percent of grade school teachers taught classes for children with learning disabilities.
Special Education needs qualified and motivated teachers in order to adequately accommodate these students.
Key People
Edu for Mentally Handicapped
Special Education
How does one get chosen for a Special Education Program?
Window to the Future
Movement to educate autistic children
In 1915 Bruno Bettelheim's boarding school, the Orthogenic School at the University of Chicago, was the first school for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Bettelheim believed Autism is caused by poor parenting that creates socially awkward children and that removing children from their parents will fix the child.
Autism was considered an emotional illness until 1966 when Eric Schopler found autism does not stem from parental errors, but is a neurological disorder that impairs how the child experiences and understands the world.
Schopler created the TEACCH approach which instructs teachers how to understand the culture of autism (discussed in goals slide), and structure lessons based on children's individual needs.
This forever changed how autistic children were taught.
What is Missing?
A standardized treatment for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Educators are still jamming puzzle pieces into the puzzle that is successful education for autistic children and hoping that one sticks
Original Education Methods Based on TEACCH Program
Joint Attention Model
Scaife and Bruner developed in 1975
Enforces early interactions between infants to coordinate their attention with their social partner, and thus, teaches them how to interact with other people.
Pivotal Response Treatment
Created by Robert Kogel in 1970 and developed throughout 1980s
Targets the child's motivation, responsiveness to social cues, and self-management of daily tasks like showering.
Is a reward based system that positively reinforces pro-social behavior through compliments and gifts the child wants.
This continues to be a highly successful method of teaching.
Recent educational advances based on the TEACCH program
Relationship Development Intervention
Developed by Steven Gutstein in 2002
Ability to think flexibly is key to improving quality of life--meaning accepting changes in plans
Uses tasks like gardening and cooking to teach kids how to deal with unexpected change
Early Start Denver Model
Developed by Sally Rodgers and Geri Dawson in 2003
Reduces symptoms of autism through play based intervention combining developmental and behavioral principles of TEACCH's autism culture for children ages 12 months to 48 months
Social Communication, Emotional Regulation, and Transactional Support (SCERTS)
Created by Amy Wetherby and Emily Rubin in 2007
Goal is to reduce disabilities that inhibit learning
Develops trusting relationships with teachers
Through conversation with a teacher the child trusts, the child better maintains a well regulated emotional state
Slowly modifies environment so child becomes accustomed to learning in a variety of places
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act mandates that states identify students with disabilities so that they receive the proper education. The identification process often includes screenings, and for those already in school, interventions in their standard classroom. The IDEA recognizes 13 types of disability.
School officials refer children who have displayed learning difficulties for evaluation. Officials provide their rationale for the referral and ask for the parents' or guardians' consent.
Before a student can be enrolled in a special education program, an evaluation must be made by a team of school officials, psychologists, and doctors that a special education program will be beneficial for them.
Eligibility Determination and Classification
Findings from the evaluation are utilized to determine the eligibility of a student for special education and their individual needs in order to create an Individualized Education Plan.

Malia Dickson, Kameron Block, Katie Marshall, Julia Relova
Students with Intellectual Disabilities

: Students with intellectual disabilities have significantly below-average general intellectual functioning, and also express difficulties adapting to different social environments.

Less than 2nd or 3rd percentile in IQ
IQ under 70
With training are able to attain un-skilled or semi-skilled employment
Self-care and social skills
Continued "custodial care"
Autism Spectrum Disorder
: A developmental disorder that appears in the first three years of life, and affects the brain's normal development of social and communication skills.
1 in 68 American children have Autism

Culture of autism
Preference for visual learning
Frequent attention to details, but difficulty understanding how things fit together
Difficulty with attention
Tendency to become attached to routines
Difficulty organizing items
Impairment of social use of language
Down Syndrome
: Condition in which a child is born with an extra chromosome on the 21st chromosome pair.

Down Syndrome can cause mild to moderate mental retardation and skeletal, heart, and hearing difficulties.
It is estimated that every 2 in 1000 American children have Down Syndrome.
Education for the mentally handicapped
Impact of high stakes tests
With No Child Left Behind (2001), many students with disabilities are included in mandated testing.
Charter schools
Many families of those with disabilities are opting to enroll in charter schools though the benefit of doing so is unproven.
Today's jobs are increasingly competitive and require a higher level of education.
Continuum of services
Providing educational services to those students who don't immediately qualify for special education, but who are struggling in the traditional educational structure.
Assistive and Adaptive Technology
With this new technology, teachers can target an individuals most responsive senses, whether through auditory, visual, or textural means.
There is flexibility in the physicality of these technologies so that individuals with physical limitations can control certain technologies that fit their physical needs.
Occupational Therapy will increase in schools to learn how to use these new technologies.
Hervey Backus Wilbur
August 18, 1820-May 1, 1883
Basic Facts
Wilbur attended Dartmouth, Amherst College, Pittsfield, and Berkshire Medical College (1843).
In 1847 the "Institute for Idiots" was founded.
Located in Barre, Massachusetts.
It was the first school specifically for mentally disabled in the U.S.
Wilbur was the Superintendent of the New York State Asylum for Idiots from 1851-1883.

Educational Philosophy
Wilbur promoted a mix of vocational, academic, and self-care instruction.
He wanted students to become independent and productive citizens.
He promoted the humanity and happiness of students.
Wilbur expressed and spread his philosophy through professional organizations.
Wilbur employed capable graduates of his institute to help with everyday tasks such as the school's laundry and sewing while also helping to care for the less able students.
Wilbur believed in the ideals of an institution that provided students a place to gain and practice various life skills.

Impact on Special Education
Wilbur's Institute was the first school in the U.S. for those with intellectual disability.
Wilbur was critical of current practices, particularly of American hospital superintendents and their haughtiness
Occupational Therapy in Schools
Public Law 94-142/Education for All Handicapped Children Act-1975
This law introduced occupational therapy to the school enviorment.
18% of Occupational Therapists (OT) work in public schools.

Key people in Occupational Therapy include:
Eleanor Clarke Slagle is the claimed founder of OT. One of his focuses in occupational therapy was habit training, which is the practice of repeating behaviors to help a student fit and learn in the world.
Adolf Meyer explored the psychobiological theory, which is the idea that the mind and body go together. In other words, the psychology of the brain and the biology of the body go hand in hand. Our bodies need our brains to function the way we do in our everyday lives.

Occupational Therapists use education as a way to sync the body and mind, and therefore, help patients take on the world one step at a time.

The advantages of Occupational Therapy in schools:
Parents and teachers are given a more concrete idea as to what a child needs from them.
Functional goals are empirically supported to bring success in schools .
Instant feedback is provided to teachers and parents on how their child is working and progressing.
Children have easy accessibility to therapists.
How Prevalent is the Need for Special Education?
Lewis Madison Terman
January 15, 1877 - December 21, 1956
Basic Facts:
Born in Johnson County, Indiana
Earned his PhD in Psychology from Clark University
Professor of Education at Stanford University from 1910 to 1922, when he was named head of the Psychology Department
Developed the Stanford-Binet mental test, which was the first widely administered mental test that measured someone's Intelligence Quotient (IQ).

Educational Philosophy:
Meritocracy System of Education
Intelligence and mental ability is inherited
1920s - National Intelligence Tests
Tracking system - students' mental abilities are based on group intelligence tests that determine homogenous ability groups that students are separated into and learn in over the years
He believed that intellectually gifted children are more likely to become the future leaders of society
Innate intelligence takes the form of a new social order based on IQ numbers

Impact on Special Education:
The Intelligence Quotient
Lewis Terman's scientific research on the intelligence of children was the first of its kind in the United States. He brought attention to and created a system of defining the intellectually gifted, without which gifted education as we know it today would not exist.

Edouard Séguin

January 20, 1812-October 28, 1880
Basic Facts:
Séquin was born in France and studied medicine and surgery.
He moved to Ohio in 1850.
In 1861 Séguin earned his medical degree from NYU and in 1863 he moved permanently to New York City.

Educational Philosophy:
Séguin believed that examining “idiocy” would provide important knowledge in all aspects of learning.
He promoted a program of sensori-motor drills that was sequential and incorporated diverse physical exercises
Séguin believed copying the teacher was an effective learning method for students with learning disabilities.
He valued the sense of touch and object lessons as a method of teaching, which is a lesson centered upon a student's engagement of his senses.
Séquin believed in the moral treatment of all students, and that showing students love and affection is important.
He placed great significance on the supportive non-verbal behavior of the teacher.
Séquin believed in the values of work and freedom for students with learning disabilities.
Séquin was critical of corporal punishment.

Impact on Special Education: Timeline
1839: Opened first school in the world for the “severely retarded”
1846: Published
Traitement moral, hygiene et education des idiots
1850: Established numerous institutions for intellectually disabled children in the US.
1863: Worked at Randall’s Island School for Mental Defectives
1866: Wrote Idiocy and Its Treatment by the Psychological Method, Founded the Séguin Physiological School in NYC
1876: Established the Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for Mental Defectives

Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania -1971
Children with disabilities have right to public education.

Mills v. Board of Education-1972
This case extended public education to all handicapped children regardless of severity and promoted alternative education rather than exclusion. It also ruled that a school cannot refuse a child with a disability because of lack of resources.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act-1973
This provision seeks to eradicate prejudice against the disabled.

Public Law 94-142/Education for All Handicapped Children Act-1975
PL-94-142 mandated related services in public schools for those who may benefit from special education and a free public education catered to their needs. The law called for instruction in the least restrictive environment possible and the creation of Individualized Education Plans. It also protected the right of parents in their child's education. PL-94-142 has been subject to numerous amendments such as the 1990 Individuals with Disabilities Act.

Vocational Amendments of 1976
This amendment mandated that 10% of state vocational education funds be used for the education of those with disabilities.

Individuals with Disability Education Act- 1990
This act, requires the compliance by all federal financial recipients and related services for children with intellectual disabilities. Part B insures the special instruction for children ages 3-21 with intellectual disabilities.

Americans with Disabilities Act- 1990
The ADA brought Section 504 to the private sector and focused on improving accessibility and making reasonable accommodation for those with disabilities without creating undue-- or excess-- hardship for an organization of work. Reasonable accommodation pertains to the idea that someones disabilities can be overlooked if given a certain crutch or exception. This act is applicable to both work environments and educational environments.
"Specifically focused teaching that aids students with learning dissabilities, so that they may succeed and attain an appropriate and constructive education."
--Team Special Education
Our Teachers (References)
Mesibov, G. B., & Shea, V. (2005)
The TEACCH approach to autism spectrum disorders.
York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
Sheldon, J. (1981). Model for self-controlled classes for autistic-type
youngsters (1st ed., Vol. 4). Rutgers University.
Williams, E. (2012). Educational recommendations for autism spectrum disorders.
Pathfinders for Autism.
Yanni, C. (2003). The linear plan for insane asylums in the United States before
1866 (1st ed., Vol. 62). University of California Press.
Schmeling, J. (1996). Drawing development in autistic and mentally retarded
children (2nd ed., Vol. 22). University of Illinois Press.
Michel, S. (1994). Dorthea Dix; or, the voice of the maniac.
, 17(2), 48-66.
Bloom, M. (2004). Editorial- primary prevention and early childhood
education: An historical note on Maria Montessori.
The Journal of Primary Prevention
, 24(3), 191-196.
Rotatori, A.F., Bakken, J.P., & Obiakor, F.E. (2011).
History of special education
. Bingley, UK:
Rens, L., & Joosten, A. (2013). Investigating the experiences in a school-based occupational
therapy program to inform community-based pediatric occupational therapy practice.
Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
, 1(61), 148–158. doi: 10.1111/1440-1630.12093
Frolek-Clark, G., Polichino, J., & Jackson, L. (2004). Occupational therapy services in early
intervention and school-based programs.
American Journal of Occupational Therapy
, (58), 681–685.
Dickie, R., & Finegan, S. (1980).
The use of a common overcorrection procedure in
eliminating topographically and functional dissimilar "autistic" behaviors in several children.
West Virginia University Press.
Heck, Arch O. (1953).
The education of children of low IQ & problems faced in educating
children of low IQ. In Benjamin, Harold (Ed.) The education of exceptional children: its challenge to teachers, parents, and laymen.
New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Shore, K. (1986).
Special education: An overview. The special education
handbook: A comprehensive guide for parents and educators.
1-27. New York, NY: Teacher College Press Columbia University.
Shaftel, Julia. "Special Education." Encyclopedia of School Psychology. Ed. Steven W. Lee.
Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2005. 521-527. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 21 Oct. 2014.
Daunhauer, L. A., Fidler D. J. , & Will, E. (2014). School function in students
with down syndrome.
The American Journal of Occupational Therapy
, 2 (68), 167-176.
Gallagher, J. J. (1979). [Issues in education for the gifted]. In A. H. Passow & K. J. Rehage (Eds.),
gifted and the talented: Their education and development
. 78, 28-44. Chicago, IL: The national society for the study of education.
Robinson, H. B., Roedell, W. C., & Jackson, N. E. (1979). Early identification and intervention. In
A. H. Passow & K. J. Rehage (Eds.),
The gifted and the talented: Their education and development
. 78, 138-154. Chicago, IL: The national society for the study of education.
Tannenbaum, A. J. (1979).
Pre-Sputnik to post-Watergate concern about the
gifted. In A. H. Passow & K. J. Rehage (Eds.), The gifted and the talented: Their education and development. 78, 5-27.
Chicago, IL: The national society for the study of education.
Thom, E. J. (1979). A systemwide program. In A. H. Passow & K. J. Rehage (Eds.),
The gifted and the talented: Their education and development.
78, 199-208. Chicago, IL: The national society for the study of education.
McEwen, I. (1995). Occupational and physical therapy in educational environments. New York:
Haworth Press.

Dix, D. (2014, November 30). Dorthea Dix. Retrieved from

Montessori, M. (2014, November 30). Maria Montessori.
Retrieved from http://www.greatthoughtstreasury.com/author/maria-montessori

Séguin, E. (2014). Edouard Séguin.
Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89douard_S%C3%A9guin

Wax, D. (2014, November 17).
What's Missing in Productivity Today?
Retrieved from http://www.lifehack.org/articles/productivity/whats-missing-in-productivity-today.html

Wilbur, H.B. Dr. Hervey Backus Wilbur.
Retrieved from http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=89919965

Terman, L. Lewis Madison Terman.
Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewis_Terman#mediaviewer/File:Lewis_Madison_Terman.jpg

N.A. [TRPyoga]. (2008, September 16). Occupational Therapy: OT in the school. [http://youtu. be/k76ETm50sCM]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=k76ETm50sCM
Thomas, G., & Loxley, A. (2007). Constructing inclusion. In C. O'Hanlan (Ed.),
Inclusive Education: Deconstructing special education and constructing inclusion (2nd ed., pp. 110-132) [e-book].
Maria Montessori
August 31, 1870-May 6, 1952

Basic Facts
Montessori was the first woman to earn a medical degree in Italy.
She was a feminist that advocated for the rights of women and the disabled.
She also had the title Director of Schools for the Mentally Disabled in 1899.
After a few years of educating the mentally disabled, Montessori decided to go back to school at the University of Rome to study normal child education. She then created her own schools, which utilized freedom of choice for students with the guidance of teachers in the classroom.

Educational Philosophy
Maria Montessori's ideas for education stemmed from other theorists such as:
Froebel & Pestalozzi and their child-centered education
Itard and his focus on sensory learning
& Seguin's observations and studies on the 'wild boy' and the boy's behavior and learning

Impact on Special Education
Maria Montessori was an advocate for special education and was one of the first people to personally educate the mentally ill. Her sensory tactics of learning helped advance the education of many disabled children in Rome and inspired the idea that the mentally disabled children can actually learn and progress.

Dorthea Dix
April 4, 1802- July 17, 1887

Basic Facts
Mental asylums treated their patients with little or no respect.
Dix believed asylums could be used as a place that could aide the mentally disabled in, as Dix puts it, "coming back to their senses."
Dix used sensationalism--the use of shocking or exciting information that is not always accurate to trigger public response-- in her journals and other pieces. Her use of sensationalism, unlike other writers, catalyzed a more humane change of the treatment of patients in mental asylums. Dix deliberately treated mental asylum patients as the human beings they were, and not as inferior animals abused by sensationalism.
She listened to complaints of the patients in the asylums and used her own observations to construct a foundation for a call to action.
Her stance embraced the ideas of femininity and morality, and expressed that women have a voice that is meant to be heard.

Impact on Special Education
Dorthea Dix changed how people with mental disabilities are viewed. Her determination and advocacy for better conditions for the mentally disabled created the view that the mentally disabled are people too who can learn and be taught like other children.
Her stance on education for the mentally disabled is a large contributing factor to why children with mental disabilities are not placed in mental asylums anymore.
Education for the Intellectually Disabled
Curriculum Content
Basic skills
"Economic usefulness"
Approaches to Education
Skills centered around single topic
Topics "practical"
Less popular
Social learning
Critical thinking
Lessons concentrated on
Needs-psychological, physical
Physical health
Social aspects
Strategies for instruction
Specific and direct instruction
Events and characters
Same lessons, different materials
Student experience success
Provide feedback
Reinforce correct responses
Systematic method
Minimal change
"Positive transfer of knowledge"
Make connections
Motivate student
Do not overwhelm with material
Types of Institutions
Regular classes
Special classes
In regular school
Either separate department or organization
Special center
Formed by creating at least four classes in a regular school
Specially trained teachers
Special schools
Large central schools
There is often a stigma associated with Special Schools which has contributed to their decline in popularity.
Dorothy Norris
She headed the Major Work program in Cleveland, OH in 1921 that is still around today.
Major Work Program -Tiered enrichment classes based on three levels:
Advanced Placement
Gifted Education
Recognizing Giftedness Today
Gifted education is a part of public schools throughout the nation due to the
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1975

The National Association of Gifted Children outlines the three phases of gifted recognition:

Identification phase
- This can be through self, peer, teacher, administrator, or parent recommendation.
-A combination of objective (quantifiable) and subjective (personally observed) traits of giftedness are considered before further testing.
-If tests, portfolios, cumulative records, and/or behavior indicate gifted potential then a request for the next step of testing will occur.

Screening phase
- Licensed professionals administer one or more of three mental tests:
-Achievement tests (i.e. SATs, Screening Assessment for Gifted Elementary Students [SAGES])
-Ability tests (i.e. Stanford-Binet, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, IV Ed. [WISC-IV], Woodcock-Dunson)
-Group tests (i.e. CogAT, Otis-Lennon)

Placement phase
- Based on the results of the tests, students are placed into an appropriate learning program or environment to suit their individual needs. Some examples of the different options are:
-Gifted Program (GIEP)
-Accelerated classes
-Individualized Education Program (IEP)

There are, however, issues within the system:
- Giftedness is a dynamic quality that spans across more than just intellect; not all tests account for musical, interpersonal, or intrapersonal giftedness.
Twice Exceptional Learners
, or children who are intellectually gifted but also have a coexisting disability, may have a missed diagnosis or a misdiagnosis because of the lack of base-rate data collected on students with a dual-diagnosis.

- The St. Louis Public School System named William Torrey Harris superintendent.
Philosophy: freedom of reasoning and wisdom
Tracking system for gifted students allowed them to complete school through 8th grade in less than 8 years.
- Britain: Francis Galton's study on families,
Hereditary Genius
, indicated that intelligence is inherited. This is considered the first manuscript on human ability.
- The first special school for the gifted opens in Worcester, MA.
- Binet-Simon tests conducted in France helped to identify any children of inferior intelligence. This was the first test that looked at intelligence on a numerical scale.

- Lewis Terman published the Stanford-Binet, the first mental aptitude test in America to be standardized by the "intelligence quotient."
- World War I began and Terman joined the Committee on the Psychological Examination of Recruits to develop the Army Alpha and Beta intelligence tests to classify army recruits based on their intellect. The Alpha test was for the literate and the Beta test was for the illiterate.

- Leta Hollingworth's Special Opportunity classes for gifted students to receive an accelerated pace of learning were established at PS 165 in New York City.

- With the Great Depression, people were less concerned about the special education of the gifted and instead focused on the economy and day-to-day survival.

- This decade marked the post-Sputnik revival of gifted education. With the new focus of science and math in schools during the Cold War, those who were gifted were sought out to be the next leaders and innovators of the time in order to compete with.the Soviet Union's rising scientific prowess. Gifted minority students were acknowledged and placed into programs as well.
- With the Civil Rights movement occurring during this decade, attention was sporadic on gifted education. However, research on curriculum development, intrinsic and environmental motivation, and the underachievement of the gifted was on an upsurge during this time.
Henry Goddard
An American psychologist who studied under Binet around 1905 and brought the Binet-Simon test back to America with him.
He translated it into English in 1908, giving American psychologists access to expand on their research and testing.
- Section 806 "Provisions Related to Gifted and Talented Children" was added to Public Law 91-230 that detailed the government's renewed interest in gifted students. This eventually led to the nationwide governmental support of gifted programs in public schools, most of which are still seen today.

Contributors From the Beginning to Today
David Wechsler
He was named Chief Psychologist at Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital from 1932-1967.
He developed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), two of the most commonly used intelligence assessments.
The WISC-IV is used widely in schools today and accounts for potential learning disabilities as well as intelligence in students. This is ideal for twice exceptional children, who otherwise may not receive the correct assistance to best suit their needs.
Plucker, J., & Esping, A. (Eds.). (2013, November 7). David Wechsler. Retrieved
December 1, 2014, from http://www.intelltheory.com/wechsler.shtml

Up until the 1900s, primarily private schools or institutions
1848: "Institute for Idiots" Founded by Hervey Wilbur
1896: First public school class for children with intellectual disability in Proidence, RI
At the turn of the 20th century, special education facilities were a hodge-podge bin of students. Students who did not suceed or fit into the traditional school setting were arbitrarily grouped together.
1917: 46 states had institutional care facilities
1930s: Special Education began to be implemented at the high school level.
1940s: Deinstitutionalization
more students in public schools
parent involvement
1950s: Growth in services
post war expansion of services
increase in students identified for services
1960s: expansion od services to children with learning disabilities
gifted education
1967: Bureau of Education for the Handicapped
1970s: Federal Funding
"child find" programs
improvements in parent education
1990s: Reform and Reorganization
cooperative learning
collaborative teaching
outcome based ed

2000s: Technology
adaptive technology
teleprinter and teletypewriter
United States Census Bureau. (2010).
Children in U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas: 2010
. Retrieved from www.census.gov
ies National Center for Education Statistics.(2012).
Digest of Education
. Retrieved from nces.ed.gov
Department of Public Instruction. (2010).
Exceptional Children
Facilities Planner: guidlines for designers
. retrieved from www.schoolclearinghouse.org
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