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Josie Campbell

on 10 January 2013

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Transcript of Lead

Deposits first second third 0 + - = 9 8 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 c The Manufacturing
Process Mining the ore
The first thing that needs to be done is they need to get the lead to the surface. They do this by digging deep tunnels with heavy machinery or by using dynamite. They shovel the ore into loading trucks then bring it to a shaft, they dump the ore down the shaft. They repeat this process over and over.
Concentrating the ore
After that they remove the waste rock off the lead at a mill. Then it is crushed into tiny peaces as small as 0.1 millimeters Flotation
This is done to separate the waste rock from the metal. First it diluted and put into the tanks this mixture is called slurry. The tank is then shaken violently, this is because the oil in the tank attracts the sulfide particles. Than air is bubbled through the mixture this causes the sulfide particles to move to the top of the tank and the waste rock to fall to the bottom. Other chemicals are added into the flotation cell to help concentrate the minerals
It leaves the flotation cell and now go though a filter which helps remove 90% of the water. the concentrate contain about 40-80% lead but it still has many impurity, mostly sulfur and zinc. Now it is ready to be shipped to the smelter.
Roasting the ore
this it where it is farther refined and now the sulfur is removed. It is unloaded at a sinter plant, it is mixed in with the many other lead bearing materials and with sand and limestone. this is put on a moving grate and air that is heated to 2,550F blows through. This is to get the sulfur to combust into sulfur dioxide gas. This is collected and later made into sulfuric acid. Now it is almost all lead but there can still be a bit of zinc, iron, and silicon, some lime, and sulfur in it. The lumps are loaded into the blast furnace. Basic Facts Symbol: Pb
Atomic Number: 82
Atomic Mass: 207.2 amu
Melting Point: 327.5 °C (600.65 K, 621.5 °F)
Boiling Point: 1740.0 °C (2013.15 K, 3164.0 °F)
Number of Protons/Electrons: 82
Number of Neutrons: 125
Crystal Structure: Cubic Mining Lead is mined commonly with sliver and zinc, the top producer for lead is Australia next to the United States, China and Canada. A lot of Australians economy is based on the mining industry. They mine lead mostly in open pits but it is also commonly mined in underground mines. One of the hotspots in Australia to this day is Mount Isa. With large factory's and huge open pit mines all over the side of the mountain.
The main use for lead is producing batteries for vechicles by combining it with oxide (PbO)
metallic form is widely used for radiation shielding because of its high absorption constant for x-rays and gamma-rays.
The main deposits of lead minerals are located in the USA, Peru, Argentina, Bolivia, Australia, Zambia, South Africa, Germany, Spain, Sweden, Italy and Serbia History Lead is one of the first ever metals to be produced by man, Being known since 3500 B.C. It was first used by plumbers for water lines and lining the inside of tubes. This is where the name plumbum originated from, in Latin it means soft metal or lead. Later on Pb became the chemical symbol for lead. They found the metal very useful and would use it for thing like roofing, coffins, tanks, and gutters, statues also as strips joining the pieces of colored glass in church windows. From 3000 B.C. to 4000 B.C. it was used as a fashion and status symbol, girls would wear it on there faces to turn it white. From about 700 A.D. to 1000 A.D. the germans would mine lead and sliver (an element commonly found together) in the Rhine valley and the Hartz mountains. One of the oldest lead pieces today is in a British Museum. The lead dates back to 3800 A.D. they would take the metal
out of the mineral and they
would have huge bonfires
where they burned wood and
coal to extract the element. Lead is produced from three types of deposits Blasting
The sinter falls into the top of the blast furnace, with the coke fuel. A large blast of air goes though the lower part of the furnace, this combusts the coke. This causes the coke to warm to 2,200F and produces carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide reacts with the lead and produces molten lead. The molten metal is drawn off into dossing kettles or molds.
This is refining the lead even more to make it 99-99.99% pure. The temperatures are about 626F so now any copper left rises to the top if the kettle and forms scum that can later be skimmed off. The gold and silver can be removed as well because it is the first thing to melt then the zinc and finally the lead.
When it is been refined enough it is cast into blocks that may weigh as much as a ton and this is the finished product. Deposits Sedimentary Exhalative Deposits (sedex)
Sedex deposits account for 50% of the world's lead resources. Lead is formed when metal-rich hot liquids are released usually an ocean, this results in a precipitation of ore-bearing material within basin-floor sediments.
Mississippi Valley Deposits (MVT)
MVT deposits happen all over the world and was named after the Mississippi valley region in the united states. The ore mineral is a replacement of the carbonate host rock. It is often a large layer of stratigraphic that extends many square kilometers.
Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits (VMS)
VMA deposits are associated with submarine volcanic processes. These deposits can also be with more then one metal such as zinc, copper, gold and silver. The sea vents
discovered during the deep
oceans expedition. This is
volcanic action under water
due to the tectonic plates
separating. This is an example
of a VMS deposits being formed on the sea floor. Lead
Josie Campbell Other Facts •Lead is a soft, heavy, dull gray metal with low tensile strength (measures the force required to pull something).
•Lead is not very abundant and is one of the most used metals in industry
•It damages the nervous system and causes brain disorders
•Lead is one of the only metals that can be found and mined in its pure form. Where it can be found and what it is used for The lead is extracted from ores dug out from underground mines. There are over sixty different types of minerals that contain some kind of lead but we only use about three. The one most commonly mined would be galena, this is because a pure form of galena has only sulfur and lead. This can also have traces of other metals as well such as silver, copper, zinc, cadmium, and antimony. Did you know that we only mine half of the metal used, the other half is all recycled! sedimentary exhalative Mississippi Valley type volcanogenic massive sulfide Lead is produced the same as many other metals for example copper and zinc. Environmently
friendly The waste minerals are not considered an environmental hazard, It can be dumped into a disposal pool that resembles a lake. But sulfur dioxide gas is one of the major byproducts of the smelting process. To protect the atmosphere the fumes and smoke can be captured and brought to a separate plant to make sulfuric acid. The future Of lead People in the lead industry are not looking to improve the amount of lead they are finding. They want to find new uses for it so there is a bigger marketing economy. Most lead sold go to car battery companies. Whats Happening in Canada Now? Canada is the largest zinc producer and the second largest nickel and lead produce. Zinc mines are found in every province except Alberta and Price Edward Island. In most cases copper is produced as a co product with nickel, zinc, lead and gold. we only have a small number of producers in Canada some include and Hudson Bay Mining, Teck Cominco and Noranda. Tech Cominco is one of the worlds largest zinc producers but it also produces lead copper molybdenum and germanium. What is happening in Australia Australia is dominating globally as the top lead and zinc producers, producing 15-20% of the worlds zinc and lead. The business is increasingly getting larger. It Provides 4% of Australia's export earnings
Basic facts
physical properties
used for
Bibliography From this To this Lead Reactions lead reacts slowly with acids because is it layer of lead oxide, but it reacts vigorously fluorine
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