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Transactional Theory of Reading and Writing
Transcript of Transactional Theory of Reading and Writing
The reader and text are two aspects of a total dynamic situation- meaning doesn't reside ready-made "in" the text or "in" the reader but happens during the transaction between reader and text
Text is simply ink on paper until a reader comes along to interact with it
"Terms such as 'the reader' are somewhat misleading, though convenient, fictions. There is no such thing as a generic reader or a generic literary work; there are in reality only the potential millions of individual readers of individual literary works... The reading of any work of literature is, of necessity, an individual and unique occurrence involving the mind and emotions of some particular readers." (p. 923)
Research & Historical Influence
Louise Rosenblatt created the theory
Aligns with Sociocultural Learning Era and Engaged Learning Era
She was influenced by Dewey and Bentley: transaction more complete term than interaction
The knower, the knowing, and the known are seen as aspects of one process
Also William James and the concept of Selective Attention
Charles Sanders Pierce- triadic model grounded language in the transactions of individuals with their world
Vygotsky's recognition of social context
Bates' iceberg metaphor to explain total sense of a word to it's user (public v. private meaning)
The Third Grader, The Text, The Poem
The reader brings their version of the world to the reading experience
This includes: literacy skills, lived experiences, and educational experiences
Reading is a "choosing activity"
the reader uses selective attention to pick out elements in a text that will be organized and synthesized into what constitutes "meaning"
Reader's stance exists on an efferent-aesthetic continuum
Amanda S. & April P.
Transactional Theory of Reading & Writing
"Something not prepared for by the preceding organization of elements may cause a
. The attention may shift from the evocation to the
formal or technical traits of the text
. The range of potential reactions and the gamut of degrees of intensity and articulatedness depend of the interplay among character of the signs on the page (the text), what the individual reader brings to it, and the circumstances of the transaction" (p. 936)
Application in the Classroom
Rosenblatt, L. (1994). The Transaction Theory of Reading and Writing. In Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading (6th ed., pp. 923-956). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Transactional Theory in the Teaching of Literature. ERIC Digest. http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-926/theory.htm
Coleman, D. and Pimental, S. in association with Council of Chief State School Officers, Achieve, Council of the Great City Schools, National Association of State Boards of Education. (2012).
Publishers' Criteria for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy, Grades 3-12.
Stopping by Woods
on a Snowy Evening
1. Read a copy of the poem by Robert Frost.
2. Analyze each stanza for literary devices, metaphor, and rhyme scheme.
3. What is the theme? What is the message
The terms efferent and aesthetic apply to the reader's evocation and experience with the text, not the genre or category of text. (i.e. fiction/ "stories", vs nonfiction and narrative vs expository writing
Common Core State Standards prevail today in most states. The nature of this shift in standards is controversial.
"Common Core State Standards emphasize the reading of more informational texts in grades K-5 and more literary nonfiction in grades 6-12. This emphasis mirrors the Writing Standards that focus on students' abilities to marshal an argument and write to inform or explain." (Coleman & Pimental, 2012)
"Those who apply these terms to texts should realize they are actually reporting their interpretation of the writer's intention as to what kind of reading the text should be given" (P. 933).
Teachers help to create circumstances and situations that influence a students' experience with, and interpretation of a text.
Transactional Theory in Reading Strategy
Offers theory behind alternative responses.
Highlights the problematic nature of standardized testing.
Acknowledges the differences human beings carry in thought, beliefs, experiences, feelings, opinions, attitudes and that this affects a reading.
Enforces the idea that the teaching of reading or writing can then "reinforce linguistic habits and semantic approaches useful in the other" (p.948); cross fertilization
Many schools still center the reading curriculum and instruction around an efferent stance.
Expression-Oriented Vs Reception-Oriented Authorial Reading when completing the writing process is a transaction in writing. (Both Process and Product based)