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Unit08 Development across the life span (March 2018)

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Simon Lai

on 27 August 2018

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Transcript of Unit08 Development across the life span (March 2018)

Development across the life span
Prenatal Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Old age
(< 0) (0-2) (2-12) (12-18) (18-60) (60+)

Nature
and

Nurture

Aging
Use it or lose it
Cellular-Clock Theory: telomeres shortened
Wear-and-Tear Theory: tissue damaged
Activity Theory:
involuntary withdrawal
Free-Radical Theory: unstable electron
Workplace
Elderly waiter at Ginkgo
Elderly Ambassadors
Designs
Longitudinal (same individuals across time)
Cross-sectional (same time across age)
Cohort (same age across time)
Identical Twins
Non-identical Twins
Adoption
Family members
Shared genetic makeup
Shared or different environment
Heritability
Personality (0.4-0.6)
Intelligence (0.8 in age between 18 and 50)
Psychological interests (0.3-0.4)
Psychiatric illnesses (schizophrenia 0.8, alcoholism 0.5-0.6, others 0.2-0.4)
Social attitudes (0.3-0.6 in adulthood)
Genes
A sequence of amines
, basic building blocks of development
Dominant
and
recessive
genes
for determining traits (blood type, hair and eye color, handedness, etc.)
Deoxyribonucleic acid (
DNA
)
23 pairs of
chromosomes
(22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (X, Y)
Disorders
(recessive genes and chromosome problems)

From DNA to Protein - Transcription
"https://youtu.be/gG7uCskUOrA"
Prenatal Development
Fertilization: Egg + Sperm
Germination: Cell division,
implantation (0-2 Wks)
Embryonic period: critical,
nourish from mother, avoid hazards (3-8 Wks)
Fetal period: Growth,
functioning, interacting (9 wks +)

Grief and Loss
Response
(Kübler-Ross model)
Physical Development
during
Infancy

Sensation
Reflexes
Motor milestones
Developmental Neuroscience
Increase in number of neurons
Growth of new dendrites and axon terminals
Increase in number of synaptic connections
Synaptic pruning
Loss of neurons and synaptic connections
From near the time of birth till sexual maturation
Number of neurons remains the same but size of the brain weight triples from birth to age 3
A result of learning
Preferential looking and habituation
"https://youtu.be/UiB2ZX1phmc"
The Visual Cliff
"https://youtu.be/p6cqNhHrMJA"
Senses mature...
Touch: At birth
Smell: In a few days
Taste: Sweet at birth, salty at around 4 months, sour and bitter showed complex response
Hearing: At around 0/1 months and continue, Vision: Rods at birth, cones at around 6 months, depth perception at around 4-5 months, face (mother) recognition at 2 weeks
|------------Raising head & chest (2-4m)-----------|
|----------------------------Rolling over (2-5m)----------------------------|
|--Unsupported Sitting (6-7m)--|
|----------Crawling (7-8m)---------|
|------------------------------Walking (8-18m)----------------------------->
|----Supported Sitting (4-6m)---+
+-------------------|
Parenting Styles
Temperament and Attachment
Mother-child interaction
Attachment Styles & Separation Anxiety
"https://youtu.be/QTsewNrHUHU"
Contact comfort: Innate tendency for intimacy?
"https://youtu.be/hsA5Sec6dAI"
Cognitive Development
Piaget's Cognitive Development Stages
Assimilation
and
accommodation
Sensorimotor
(0-2 yrs)
Object permanence
, concepts
and language
Pre-operational
(2-7 yrs)
Words,
egocentric
,
centration
and
irreversibility
,
animism
Concrete operations
(7-12 yrs)
Conservation
,
reversibility
,
classification, logical thinking,
analogies of concrete things
Formal operations
(12yrs-adulthood)
Abstract reasoning,
hypothetical thinking,
systematical examination and testing
Vygotsky's concepts:
Scaffolding
and
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Moral Development - Kohlberg's Stages of Morality
Kohlberg's three levels of morality
Preconventional
morality
Based on consequences (avoid punishment and bring rewards)
Conventional
morality
Based on intentions, norms and rules/laws
Postconventional
morality
Based on mutual benefit and utilitarianism, inner conscience and ethical actions as ends not means
Language Development
Major milestones in Language Development (Brown, 1973):
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Development

Trust vs. mistrust

Initiative vs. Guilt

Identity
vs. Role Confusion

Generativity vs. Stagnation

(0-1 yrs) (3-5 yrs) (13-20 yrs) (40-50 yrs)

Autonomy vs. Shame

Industry vs. Inferiority

Intimacy vs. Isolation

Ego Integrity vs. Despair

(1-3 yrs) (5-12 yrs) (20-30 yrs) (60+ yrs)

To what extent does genes determine development?
Prenatal Development Visualized
"https://youtu.be/fKyljukBE70"
Synaptic Pruning - Communicating Science
Through Visual Media
"https://youtu.be/rxPT78F_ZVE"
Baumrind (1966); Maccoby & Martin (1983)
Thomas & Chess (1977) Temperament Styles
Bowlby (1969) & Ainsworth (1973) Attachment Styles
Heinz's Dilemma
Link: "https://youtu.be/5czp9S4u26M"
Studying development - Different Research Designs
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development - Animated
"https://youtu.be/ODOAbjxedw0"
Cooing (0-3 months)
Babbling (6-12 months)
One-Word Speech (6-12 months)
Telegraphic Speech (18-24 months)
Whole Sentences (36-72 months)
Unit Overview
Nature & Nurture on Development
Genetics & Development
Prenatal & Neonatal Development
Maternal-Child Interaction & Development
Cognitive Development
Language Development
Moral & Psycho-Social Development

Unit Summary
Both
nature & nurture
exert influence on development
Prenatal & Neonatal Development
adheres to stage like development, yet progress varies among individuals
Maternal-Child Interaction
influences development in childhood and beyond
Cognitive Development
on different domains unfold between infancy and adolescence
Language Development
is rapid during the critical period
Moral & Psycho-Social Development
extend beyond childhood and changes across lifespan

More at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/liyeung/sets/72157623387996361/


Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development
"https://youtu.be/Yxo8zkgd07E"
The wire surrogate “mother” provides the food for this infant rhesus monkey. But the infant spends all its time with the soft, cloth-covered surrogate. According to Harlow, this demonstrates the importance of
contact comfort
in attachment.
Full transcript