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Anatomy and Physiology - Special Senses
Transcript of Anatomy and Physiology - Special Senses
as sound through organs such as the ear. Vision is the interpretation of visual light
into what we perceive as sight. Taste is the sensation caused by a chemical reaction between a substance and one's taste buds. Anatomy and Physiology The ear can be divided into three parts:
1. The Outer (External) Ear - The external structure through which sound waves enter. 2. The Middle Ear - The central part of the ear that is spanned by ossicles: three bones that transmit vibratory motion of the eardrum to the inner ear's fluids. 3. The Inner (Internal) Ear - Maze of chambers called the osseous (bony) labyrinth. Transmits sound to the auditory complex in the temporal lobe. Cochlea Vestibule Semicircular
Canals Smell The interpretation of dissolved chemicals in the air as an odor. Equilibrium Equilibrium is the actions that are made by the vestibular apparatus; a sensory receptor within the vestibule and semicircular canals.
There are two types of Equilibrium. Static - Which controls the position of the head in relation to gravity. Also tells us which way is up and down.
Dynamic - Controls the position of the head in rotary and angular movements. "Window to the World" "White of the Eye" Through which light passes Contains photoreceptors. Prevents light from scattering. "Blindspot" Visual Impairments Myopia - light rays only focus on the front of the Retina, meaning far away objects appear blurry.
Hyperopia - light rays only focus behind the Retina, meaning close objects appear blurry.
Emmetropia - harmonious vision Receptors for taste are called
chemoreceptors, much like the receptors for smell.
They are called this because they respond to chemicals in a solution. There are four types of taste receptors:
Salty Sugar receptors respond to amino acids, sugars, and saccharine.
Sour receptors respond to hydrogen ions (acidity)
Bitter receptors respond to alkaloids.
Salty receptors respond to metal ions in a solution. Sugars and salts satisfy the body's need for carbohydrates, minerals, and some amino acids; while sour foods provide Vitamin C.
However, spoiled and poisonous foods are typically bitter, meaning the body will reject them. Texture, temperature, and smell also
influence the way we taste. Receptors for smell (or olfaction) much like taste, are called chemoreceptors because they react to chemicals dissolved in solution.
Olfactory receptors respond to a much wider range than taste receptors.
Even a few molecules can activate olfactory receptors. How Olfaction Works Olfactory hairs are stimulated by dissolved chemicals, and send impulses along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory cortex of the brain. The brain then interprets the odor.