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Direct funding from the EU and the shape of the 2014-2020 programmes

October 2012

Ronan Gingles

on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of Direct funding from the EU and the shape of the 2014-2020 programmes

Mid-West & South-West
Managers & Directors study visit
Brussels, 10 October 2012

Direct funding from the EU and the
shape of the 2014-2020 programmes

Europe for Citizens

Innovation Union
(research & innovation conditions; access to finance).
Youth on the move
(education systems).
A digital agenda for Europe
(high-speed internet; benefits of digital single market).
Resource efficient Europe
(decarbonise economy; renewables use; energy efficiency; modernise transport).
An industrial policy for the globalisation era
(business/SME environment; sustainable industrial base).
An agenda for new skills and jobs
(labour market mobility, skills development, supply-demand).
European platform against poverty
(sharing growth & jobs benefits, social inclusion).
Europe 2020 Flagship Initiatives
Europe 2020 does not bring its own/additional budget.

Channelling public spending resources.

Shapes both national spending priorities (main focus) and overall EU budget (MFF) 2014-2020.

Context for EU funding.

Only where considered appropriate:
- Beyond purely local/regional/national issue
- Areas where EU may propose actions
A means to inform, test & develop EU policy
Local effect: practical effect & public awareness of EU
Bigger picture: better informed policy through wide involvement... improved implementation
Linked to specific policy, objectives and targets
Experimental opportunity (‘innovation’ of all kinds)
Platform for useful cooperation across borders/systems
Basis of EU Funding

Internal market
Social policy (limited)
Economic, social and territorial cohesion
Agriculture & Fisheries
Consumer protection
Freedom, security and justice
Common safety concerns in public health matters
Research, technological development and space
Development cooperation and humanitarian aid
‘’Competence to support, coordinate or supplement actions of the member states’’

Protection and improvement of human health
Education, vocational training, youth and sport
Civil protection
Administrative cooperation

EC funding to propose improvements to Member States’ orientation.
Policies: ‘’Supplementary actions’’ competence
Some addressed through shared management programmes.

Others via EC direct funding programmes.

Thematic (or multi-themed) Programmes:
- Financial instruments/Funds (some ‘framework programmes’)
- Heavily based on EC White Papers & Action Plans
- Multi-annual objectives: Council & EP Regulation
Annual Work Programme
for each fund (Nov-March): updates relevance:…priorities, conditions, finances, timetable
Calls for proposals
- Projects...coherent actions to test/develop measures
Policies Programmes Projects
No nationally-managed element or ring-fenced budget.
Content based on prior consultations.
Competitive bidding process.
Co-financing by EC (usually 45-80%) – ensures ‘’buy-in’’
Break-even financing of given operation.
Leveraging further future revenue.
Operate largely independently of each other (criteria)
Strong transnational issue requirement (EU added value)
How EC direct funding works
Open-minded to wider influences/big picture
Informed of opportunities well in advance
Realistic ambitions - prioritise actions & goals
Willingness to network – enthusiasm & inventiveness (market own specifics ... overcome relative peripherality)
Ability to shape a joint bid document and shared budget
Compete without guarantees
Pros & cons of benefits vs time, effort, resource management, cashflow, administrative complexity…
Ongoing commitment to implementation – local & transnational (including administrative)
Mindset required
The most immediately apparent reason.

Leverage extra funding to deepen/widen activities… or bridge resource gap

Deploy existing outlays (staff/overheads) as ‘’match funding’’

Share costs of involvement (locally/regionally)

Pool resources for greater effect & quality (project level)

Groundwork for future economic spin-offs and attracting investment and employment (post-project)

Occasional preparatory support (travel to meetings)

Even ‘’low’’ co-financing is still extra money…if well used!
Why go ‘European’? - Financial benefits
Access to new thinking, approaches & techniques from other national perspectives & systems

No need for permission nationally

Capacity-building – organisational & personal

Network among local/regional consortia (critical mass) to broaden engagement with system actors

Better inform future local actions (…national policy?)

Built-in recognition of your relevance (& excellence?)

Place-making potential by association

Kudos for showing initiative (media, institutional…)

New connections can be further developed & regularised

Influence EU policy for future
Why go ‘European’? – Other benefits
Comparative research
Active stakeholder engagement (specific groups)
Networking (incl. among different sectors’ actors)
Knowledge & experience exchange, transfer
& adaptation
Mobility: study visits & placements
Capacity-building, training seminars & workshops
Awareness-raising campaigns & educational materials
Guidance/information tools (e.g. Best Practice manuals)
Common approaches/methodologies & indicators
New technologies
Model/strategy development & implementation
Applied research: pilot & demonstration projects
Commonly funded activities (soft actions)
- innovation capacity for resource-efficient marine extractive industries …fisheries & aquaculture, aggregates and renewables (FP7 – Regions of Knowledge) – SWRA
Burren Tourism
(LIFE+) – Clare County Co. & Shannon Development, (with GSI, Failte Ireland, National Monuments Service, OPW, Heritage Council, UCG, UCD)
– improving communities‘ sustainable energy policy tools (IVC) – MWRA
- cluster management (CIP) – SWRA
– High-potential start-ups (NWE) – CIT (& BMW)
Supporters’ Cooperative
(Preparatory Action for Sport) – Cork City FC/FORAS
- more effective operation of existing transport infrastructure (AA) – SWRA (& Cork City Co?) (& ESB)
- social responsibility in SMEs (IVC) – SWRA
- entrepreneurial and innovation networks for maritime economy niches of excellence (AA) – SWRA & CIT.
- river and landscape management, protection and development solutions (IVC) – SWRA
Rural Alliances
(NWE) – SKDP (& Mayo Co. Co.)
– Eco-accomodation in rural regions (IVC) – SD
eCitizen II
(IVC) – Kerry County Co.
– Rethinking Entrepreneurship (AA) – SWRA
– Cooperatives of Employment and Services in Rural Areas (IVC) – Cork County Co.
(NPP) – UCC/CMRC (& Kerry County Co?)
– Managing Industrial Territory for the Knowledge Era (IVC) – SD
  - Sustainable Transport in Rural Tourism Areas (NPP) – Clare County Co.
– end-of-life tyre recycling (LIFE+) – Erne Engineering ltd, Lissarda., Co. Cork
poultry litter waste transformation (CIP Eco-Innovation) – Biomass Heating Solutions Ltd., Ballagh, Co. Limerick
Current/Recent project examples: South-West & Mid-West
Other projects...
Various research projects from UCC, UL, CIT, ITT, LIT.

Also Teagasc, Marine Insitute, Coillte, EPA, BnM, BIM etc...

Opportunities to better tap into/influence these activities?

Could have more direct territorial impact/input?

Community participation?

Reflect economic activity and potential (esp. SMEs)?

Smart Specialisation Strategies (via Structural Funds)
Most fully committed by now.

Remaining opportunities in 2012/2013 calls for:
Leonardo (VET)
Grundtvig (Adult Education)
Youth in Action
Intelligent Energy Europe
ICT Policy Support Programme
LIFE+ (?)
Current Programmes
Much continuity. Some realignment.

Regional Development (Territorial Cooperation)
Environment & Climate Change
Enterprise, Competitiveness & SMEs
Research & Innovation
Youth, Education & Training, Sport
Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion
Civil Protection
Public Health & Consumer Affairs
Justice & Home Affairs

Expected underway mid-late 2014
Not all aspects of programmes support projects.
2014-2020 Programmes
‘Territorial Cooperation’ - part of Structural Funds but uses direct funding approach.

Targets Local & Regional Authorities specifically.

Umbrella programmes for specific geographical areas.

Transnational (‘B’ strand) programmes: ’
’integrated territorial development
linked to cohesion policy priorities’’

Inter-regional (‘C’ strand – pan-European) - exchange of experience to enhance design and implementation of regional policies & programmes for growth and jobs. Other networking initiatives possible (e.g. URBACT).

Proposed budget: 30% increase.
Regional Development
(Territorial Cooperation)
& Climate Change
‘Globalisation Adjustment Fund’
Education & Sport
Social Affairs & Inclusion
Other Funds
Transnational Programmes
North West Europe
Better focused: 3 strategic priorities.

More coherent support (less gaps) across innovation cycle from research to retail/ideas to market.

Not just technologies and research in isolation. Stronger support for ‘’open innovation’’, including:
New uses and combinations of existing technology,
Business models and end-user interaction,
Non-commercial applications (e.g. social innovation)

A more SME-oriented approach.

Major emphasis on sustainable development & ICT.

Strengthened complementarities with Structural Funds.
Changes from FP7
Actions should be linked to developing
an economy based on knowledge, research and innovation
promoting a greener, more resource-efficient and competitive economy
fostering high employment that delivers social and territorial cohesion
; and developing administrative capacity. 

Menu of 32 ‘Investment Priorities’ from 11 CSF ‘Thematic Objectives’ (will also form basis for ERDF and ESF programmes at regional/national level)

For transnational programmes, up to 4 of the 11 Thematic Objectives may be used. All 11 for the Inter-regional strand.
Interreg topics

Strengthening RTDI
(a) enhancing infrastructure and capacities to develop excellence and promoting centres of competence;
(b) promoting business R&I investment, product and service development, technology transfer, social innovation and public service applications, demand stimulation, networking, clusters and open innovation through smart specialisation;
(c) supporting technological and applied research, pilot lines, early product validation actions, advanced manufacturing capabilities and first production in Key Enabling Technologies and diffusion of general purpose technologies.

Access to and use of ICT
a) extending broadband deployment and roll-out of high-speed networks;
(b) developing ICT products and services, e-commerce; enhancing demand;
(c) strengthening ICT applications for e-government, e-learning, e-inclusion and ehealth.

Competitiveness of SMEs
(a) promoting entrepreneurship; facilitating the economic exploitation of new ideas and fostering the creation of new firms;
(b) developing new SME business models (internationalisation).
'Smart' investment priorities
Shift to a low-carbon economy
(a) production and distribution of renewable energy sources;
(b & c) energy efficiency and renewable energy use in SMEs, public infrastructures and the housing sector;
(d) developing smart distribution systems at low voltage levels;
(e) low-carbon strategies for urban areas.

Climate change adaptation and risk management and prevention
(a) dedicated investment for adaptation to climate change;
(b) specific risk disaster resilience and disaster management systems.

Environmental protection and resource efficiency
a) waste sector;
(b) water sector;
(c) protecting, promoting and developing cultural heritage;
(d) protecting biodiversity, soil protection and promoting ecosystem services including NATURA 2000 and green infrastructures;
(e) action to improve the urban environment, including regeneration of brownfield sites and reduction of air pollution.

Sustainable transport and major bottlenecks
(a & b) Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) and enhanced regional mobility through connecting secondary and tertiary nodes;
(c) environment-friendly and low-carbon transport systems; promoting sustainable urban mobility;
(d) high quality and interoperable railway systems.
'Sustainable' Investment priorities
Employment and support for labour mobility
(a) business incubators and investment support for self employment and business creation;
(b) local development initiatives and aid for structures providing neighbourhood services to create new jobs;
(c) investing in infrastructure for public employment services.

Social inclusion and poverty reduction

health and social infrastructure which contribute to national, regional and local development, reducing inequalities in terms of health status, and transition from institutional to community-based services;
(b) support for physical and economic regeneration of deprived urban and rural communities;
(c) support for social enterprises.

Education, skills and lifelong learning
by developing education and training infrastructure;

Increased institutional capacity and effectiveness of public administration
and public services related to implementation of the ERDF, and in support of actions in institutional capacity and in the efficiency of public administration supported by the ESF. This may include development and implementation of macro-regional and sea-basin strategies for the Atlantic.
'Inclusive' investment priorities
Implement EU priorities: resource efficiency; biodiversity loss; climate adaptation & mitigation.

Platform for accelerating change (e.g. via exchange).
Member State practice, including mainstreaming.

Integrate objectives across other policies.

Incentivise L&R strategic frameworks for investment.

New emphasis on better governance (bottom-up).

Some previous elements » Horizon 2020.

Proposed budget: €3.2 billion
Life - Environment
‘Resource Efficiency’
Development, testing and demonstration of approaches, best practices and solutions.
Innovative waste, water & air policy approaches in other sectors (‘Integrated Projects’).


To halt nature loss and restore ecosystem services.
Support for Natura2000 sites ‘Prioritised Action Frameworks’ (PAF) for sites’ network management & coordination (‘Integrated Projects’).
Delivery of EU Biodiversity Strategy 2020.

‘Environmental Governance & Information
Behavioural change and compliance
Better enforcement.
Awareness & knowledge sharing.
Cooperation networks.
Support for NGO involvement in consultation and implementation.
(reducing GHG – incl. support to SMEs.)

Increase resilience – esp. L&R low-carbon strategies and effective data use for planning.
Policy studies for local implementation.
L&R capacity-building.
Integrated strategies & action plans (regional).
Innovative technologies, systems, methods …

’Governance and Information’ 
Life- Climate Action
Large-scale territorial strategies: implementation, coordination & linkages with other sectors.

Mobilising ERDF/EAFRD/EMFF, national and private funding (e.g. landowner compensation).

Targeted habitats & species conservation.

Natura 2000 network management.

Waste management.

Improved air quality.

River basin district management.

Ecosystem services restoration.
Life - 'Integrated Projects'
access to finance for SMEs

Entrepreneurial culture/environment
for business creation & growth (e.g. education, exchange…).

sustainable competitiveness of firms

internationalisation and market access

Overcoming Single Market fragmentation.

Enterprise support/financing aspects of CIP.

Open to all types of SME

Proposed budget: €2.5 billion
Improved framework conditions
for competitiveness and sustainability:
Adjustment to a low-carbon economy.
Implementation of “Think Small First Principle” and “Small Business Act”.
Identification of needed skills and provision of adequate training to sector-specific challenges.
Tourism – transnational issues.
Encouraging uptake of new business concepts for sustainable design-based goods.

Equity Facility for Growth for SMEs:
Growth-oriented SMEs.
Mainly growth-stage…<20%* of total EU investment in early-stage.
€690 million expected.

Loan Guarantee Facility for SME growth & RDI:
Guarantees for loans to SMEs up to €150,000*.
Securitisation of SME debt finance portfolios.
€746 million expected.

Possible combination with Structural Funds.
COSME – ‘Actions to improve SME access to finance’
Wider roll-out of EIF-backed equity, debt and guarantee instruments (as-yet-undefined).

Strategic investments (to deliver growth, job creation and/or innovation) with clear commercial potential.

Multiplier effect to stretch EU funding impact -attracting other public & private financing to projects.

Support (e.g. knowledge transfer, investment in intellectual property) to start-ups, SMEs, high-potential firms, micro-enterprises.
Enterprise, Competitiveness & SMEs – ‘Innovative Financial Instruments’
Implementing Innovation Union (Europe 2020)

Creating innovative products and services to provide business opportunities and improve daily life.

Includes all non-enterprise management & financing elements (Energy, ICT, (Eco-)Innovation) of current CIP.

9 EIT ‘Knowledge & Innovation Communities’ (KICs) themes to bring together HEIs, research centres and businesses on a cross-border PPP basis.

Proposed budget: €80 billion
Horizon 2020
Quality research through:
World-class frontier research.
Research mobility & career development (Marie Curie).
Future & Emerging Technologies (FETs).
Research infrastructure (including e-infrastructure).
Improving Member State policies.
Actions to strengthen the role of women.
Global cooperation.
Address ERA obstacles (single market for knowledge).

Proposed budget: €24.6 billion
H2020 - Excellent Science (priority 1)
Competitive Industries through:
Developing and supporting innovative SMEs.
Tap employment creation potential from R&I activities.
Explore innovative ideas (‘’open, light & fast schemes’’).
Promote innovation and market uptake.
Industry participation & investment, incl PPPs.
Take account of non-technological innovation.
Public procurement support.
Treatment of IPR.
Risk finance financial instruments (equity & debt).

Proposed budget: €17.9 billion
H2020: 'Industrial Leadership' (priority 2)
(within ‘Industrial Leadership’ strand)
‘Equity Facility for R&I’
Innovative SMEs and small midcaps
Focus: early-stage
Also covering growth-stage investments < 20% of total EU investment

‘SMEs & Small Midcaps Guarantee Facility for R&I’
Guarantees for loans < €150,000* for R&I activities

€3.8 billion (1/3 for SMEs) expected.
H2020 – ‘Access to Risk Finance’
Better Society:
Concerns that major EU policy objectives cannot be achieved without innovation.
Breakthrough solutions from multi-disciplinary collaborations (incl. social sciences & humanities).
Promising solutions need to be tested, demonstrated and scaled-up.

Proposed budget: €31.7 billion
H2020: 'Societal Challenges' (priority 3)
Health, demographic change and well-being

Smart, green and integrated transport

Secure, clean and efficient energy

Safe secure food supply (sustainable agriculture, marine and maritime research & the bioeconomy)

Inclusive, innovative and secure societies

Climate action, resource efficiency and raw materials

Opportunities for local & regional government?
H2020: 'Societal Challenges'
MEDIA and CULTURE programmes…plus heritage.
‘’Competitiveness’’: growth, employment & innovation.
Direct support & training in reaching foreign markets.
Embrace digital opportunities.
Innovative audience-building and cultural/media literacy.
New business models.
Loan Guarantee Facility: sector’s financial specificities.
Trial artistic, intercultural & socio-economic models.
Safeguard cultural and linguistic diversity.

Proposed budget: €1.8 billion
'Creative Europe'
Investment relating to all current Lifelong Learning programme elements:
Primary & Secondary Education;
Higher Education;
Vocational Training;
Adult Education;
Sport (e.g. social aspects).

Proposed budget: €19 billion
'Erasmus for All' or 'YES Europe'
Targeted transnational ‘’learning opportunities’’.

Improving skills & employability – esp. youth

Student loan guarantee scheme (Masters abroad).

Matching skills and labour market demand.

Volunteering, non-formal & informal learning.

Institutional cooperation (innovative practices).

Widespread reforms and systems modernisation.

‘Knowledge’ and ‘Sector-skills’ Alliances (HEI adaptation via business + VET input).
'Erasmus for All' actions
Increase awareness and understanding of EU, to tackle perceived ‘’democratic deficit’’.

Solidarity, societal engagement & volunteering.
European integration through transnational town-twinning (networking and joint local civil society projects), group exchanges and discussions on EU daily impact.
Actions linked with EU political agenda to enable citizen participation in its democratic processes.

Stimulate debate, reflection and cooperation on remembrance, EU integration and history.

Proposed budget: €229 million
'Europe for Citizens'
Programme for Employment & Social Innovation
Innovative solutions for effective reform of social protection systems and labour markets.

Tackle demographic ageing, high unemployment rates, poverty and social exclusion.

Policy coordination, sharing of best practices, employment mobility, capacity-building (entrepreneurship and self-employment).

Proposed budget: €906 million
PROGRESS (Programme for Employment and Social Solidarity):
Policy analysis, learning and development:
Improving working conditions;
Reducing work-related accidents and illnesses including emerging occupational health and safety risks;
Ensuring gender and age equality in workplace.
al innovation & experimentation’ proj
ects: small-scale testing for up-scaling (via ESF).
Microfinance & Social Entrepreneurship Facility:
Support and risk-sharing loan guarantees (via selected microcredit providers) for SME set-up / development.
Capacity-building for microfinance institutions.
Investments to develop, grow and consolidate social enterprises with difficulties in accessing conventional credit (e.g. unemployed/at risk of losing job; considered too young/old; member of a minority group, disabled etc.)
Multiplier effect to lay sustainable foundations for professional social impact investments.

EURES (European Employment Services)
Modernised self-service transnational tools for matching job-seekers with job offers.
New targeted mobility schemes (e.g. ‘Your First EURES Job’ scheme) for young jobseekers.
Programmes (content & budgets) still being fine-tuned
…moving targets to be monitored up to 2014.

Period of reflection (2012-2013) to use wisely.

Strategic targets for funding

Need to be more preparedand proactive.

Engage with relevant programme consultations.

Match local/regional issues to EU policy context.

Sectoral and intra-/inter-regional collaboration

...critical mass? ...shared resources and costs?

Network & promote at home and in Europe.

...Ready to roll in 2014!
Major redundancies ( >500) with significant adverse impacts on local/regional economy.
Individual and time-limited support.
LLL learning & retraining, mentoring, entrepreneurial activities, mobility allowances.
To include temp workers, self-employed & SME owner-managers. Involvement of social partners in local management arrangements.
Expected fall-out from EU trade agreement liberalisation measures (agri imports …market prices/employment ).
Proposed budget: Up to €500 million per year
Cooperation against adverse social, economic & environmental impact of disasters.
To support, coordinate & supplement Member States actions to protect citizens, assets and environment.
High level of protection and culture of prevention.
Enhance preparedness (e.g. citizen awareness).
Rapid emergency response disaster assistance interventions.
Cooperation training/exercises, experts exchange and projects testing new approaches to reduce risk.
Resource pooling and cooperative logistics.

€276 million expected.  
Civil Protection Mechanism
'Health for Growth'
Added value cooperation actions.
Uptake of sustainable innovation in health systems.
Improved access to better and safer healthcare for citizens.
Promotion of good health and prevention of diseases.
Citizens’ protection from cross-border health threats.

Proposed budget: €446 million
Promotion, recognition & consistent application of rights and freedoms derived from EU citizenship:
Non-discrimination principles (racial or ethnic origin, religion, disability, age or sexual orientation);
Equality between women and men;
Rights of the child,
Protection of personal data,
EU consumer legislation;
Freedom to conduct a business in internal market.

€387 million expected.
'Rights & Citizenship programme'
Draws on and extends capacity-building developed by current ‘European Refugee Fund’, the ‘European Fund for the Integration of third-country nationals’ and ‘European Return Fund’.

Support for both national programme and EU-managed actions addressing all aspects of migration, including asylum, legal migration, integration and the return of illegal migrants.

Proposed budget: €3.9 billion
'Asylum & Migration Fund'
Common infrastructure fund to deploy smart interconnected transport, energy & digital networks.

Seed finance to kick-start key missing link investment (to stimulate private sector where market is weak).

Contributions to more competitive & greener economy.

Transport: ‘Core’ (2030) & ‘comprehensive’ (2050).

Digital: High-speed broadband and public ICT services.

Energy: Strategic networks (secure supply and renewables dividend).

€50 billion expected.
Connecting Europe Facility (CEF)
High leverage funds for growth through investment – alternative use of EU financing to traditional grants.

EIB-backed risk-sharing (equity, debt and guarantee instruments) to stimulate financial institutions and private capital market investors as debt financers.

2012 pilot CEF infrastructure project bonds guarantee (from TEN-T & CIP): Transport €200M; ICT €20M; Energy €10M.

Other Financial Instruments: JESSICA for urban development and JEREMIE for microfinance (both use Structural Funds allocations to invest in revolving funds)?
Project Bonds
& Financial Instruments
Policies: ‘’Shared competence’

Atlantic Area
Northern Periphery
AT Venture
AT Clusters
– biomass mobilisation (FP7 – Regions of Knowledge) – MWRA, SD, UL & LIT
Green eMotion
(FP7) – Cork City Co. (& Dublin City Co., ESB, TCD)
- Sustainable Value Creation based development with special focus on eco-design and eco-innovation (IVC) – MWRA, SWRA & UL
- Digital Inclusive eGovernment (ICT-PSP) – MWRA & Limerick City Co.
Parks Atlantic
- urban and peri-urban parks for sustainable development (AA) – MWRA & Limerick City Co.
- Rural Innovation/Business Systems (NPP) – SD
– freight logistics (NWE) – MWRA
– marine leisure & tourism (AA) – MWRA
- Digital Action for Remote and Rural Areas (NPP) – SD & UL
Cantata 2
– authentic tourism based on local distinctiveness (AA) – SD (& Clare County Co.?)
Recyclable materials insulation for timber-frame housing
(CIP Eco-Innovation) – Cygnum Ltd., Macroom
Meat processing anerobic digestion
(CIP Eco-Innovation) – Electrical & Pump Services Ltd., Mallow
– sustainable energy communities (FP7 Concerto) – North Tipperary County Co.
– identity-based econ. development (NWE) – SKDP
– environmental education (NPP) – Clare County Co.
– economic conversion through knowledge-based economy (AA) – MWRA & Limerick City Co.
(Intelligent Energy Europe) Regional Clusters in Energy Planning – SD & Limerick-Clare Energy Agency
Mulkear Life
– river restoration ( Life+) – Limerick County Co. & North Tipperary County Co. (with South Tipp Co. Co. Inland Fisheries, OPW, NPWS)IMCORE – ICZM (NWE) – Cork County Co., UCC, NMCI (with Donegal Co. Co.)
Trendy Travel
– public awareness (Intelligent Energy Europe) – Cork City Co.
Project Examples (2)
A benchmark sample of 70 medium-sized (100,000 - 500,000 pop.), standalone, university cities
Cork’s ‘Smart City’ credentials
A benchmark sample of 70 medium-sized (100,000-500,000 pop.), standalone, university cities
Overall: #31 of 70
Cork's Smart City Credentials
Smart Economy - Ranking #2 of 70
Smart Environment - Ranking #66 of 70
Smart People:
#26 of 70
Smart Governance:
#25 of 70
Smart Living:
#21 of 70
Smart Mobility:
#45 of 70
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