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A brief of the physics and chemistry advancements of the jet engine

mina saad

on 12 February 2013

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Transcript of Copy of THE JET ENGINE

The Engineer prespective of THE JET AIRCRAFT Mina atta sobhy saad The Creation of the
JET AIRCRAFT Dr. Hans von Ohain and Sir Frank Whittle are both recognized as being the co-inventors of the jet engine. Each worked separately and knew nothing of the other's work. CREATORS Dr. Hans von Ohain Sir Frank Whittle In February 1940, the Gloster Aircraft Company was chosen to develop the aircraft to be powered by the W1 engine, created by Whittle.
The historic first flight of the “Pioneer” took place on May 15, 1941, with Flight Lieutenant P. E. G. Sayer as pilot. A small aircraft was designed and constructed by Ernst Heinkel to serve as a test for Hans Von Ohain's new type of propulsion system - the Heinkel He178.

It flew for the first time on August 27, 1939.
By Flight Captain Erich Warsitz. Warsitz How the Jet Engine Works: Air from the intake is fed through a rotating compressor, where a series of fan blades reduce the air volume while increasing the pressure.

The pressure may increase by as much as 30 times.
This pressurized air is sent into the combustion chamber. When the burning mixture rushes into the turbine, the flow of hot and expanding
gases flow over a set of fan blades. part of the energy is used to power the compressor THE CHEMISTRY OF JET FUEL This fuel is burned in the combustion engine and its chemical energy is released as heat to power the engine and propel the airplane forward Jet fuel which powers the jet engine is high grade kerosene The critical parameters of jet fuel are the energy values which determine the amount of heat released during combustion

Material density

Viscosity (resistance of a fluid)

Naphthalene content, (naphthalene is a white solid in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon class of chemicals)

Flash point, (is the lowest temperature at which a material can vaporize to form an ignitable mixture in air)

Boiling point (the temperature at which a material has enough kinetic energy to go into the gas phase)

Freezing point (the temperature at which a material goes into the solid phase)

Thermal stability, (resistance to decompositions at high temperatures)

Corrosivity, (the irreversible damage one substance does on another)

Lubricity, (measure in the reduction in friction)

Electrical conductivity, (how well a substance conducts charge) Chemical and Physical Enhancments of the JET Aircraft The jet engine has impressive demands on the structures and materials of the plane itself as compared to the structures of previous planes. wing configurations (PHYSICS)
materials of airframe (CHEMISTRY) Wing configurations have developed to have swept back wings to fly at high speeds. Chemical Properties of Airframe When high-speed forward-swept-wing airplanes came to be, with the advent of the jet aircraft, they would not have been made possible without the development of composite materials to keep their wings from bending out of shape.
Although aluminum isn't the strongest of metals its alloys use other elements to increase its strength.
Aluminum is useful for this lightweight property which is vital in order to get off the ground. Its density = 2.7 g/cm3
In modern planes aluminum makes up 80% of their weight, and a normal Boeing 747 contains about 75,000 kg of the metal.
PROPERTIES OF ALUMINUM Alloy 7075, created by the company Alcoa in 1943 is the commonly used aluminum alloy.
7075 aluminum alloy's composition roughly includes 5.6-6.1% zinc, 2.1-2.5% magnesium, 1.2-1.6% copper, and less than half a percent of silicon, iron, manganese, titanium, chromium, and other metals The Jet Engine's Effect on the Environment Eurofighter’s large proportion of airframe is made of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) 1st 2nd In addition the consumption of jet fuels are depleting natural resources
The consumption of jet fuel has more than doubled in the United States over the past 25 years, growing from 32 million gallons per day in 1974 to 72 million gallons per day in 2000. Biofuels were approved for commercial airtravel use in 2011.
Biofuels have the potential to substantially decrease the industry's greenhouse gas emissions where currently the industry is producing 2% of the globe's emissions. The energy accelerates through the nozzle providing a fast moving propelling jet stream out of the back of the engine, FUTURE FUELS The Combustion chamber is a gas turbine component which fuel, supplied by feeding nozzles,is mixed with air flow coming from the compressor

Fuel burns releasing heat to obtain a gas stream to a temperature as much as possible uniform in condition requested form turbine.

This task must be carried out with the possible minimum of pressure leaks. Fuel Design parameters
15% oxygen is recommended in exhaust.
NO2 up to 150 ppm.
SO2 up to 150 ppm.
CO up to 500 ppm.
HC up to 75 ppm. Emission Standard Maintenance
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