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Chemistry: Exposing Olympic Drug Cheats Since 1968

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Anna Kinsella

on 6 March 2013

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Transcript of Chemistry: Exposing Olympic Drug Cheats Since 1968

Mass Spectrometry Exposing Olympic Drug Cheats Since 1968 Chemistry: STEROIDS Chromatography Doping - ‘the use of certain substances or the use of methods that could have the effect of unnaturally improving the physical and/or mental condition of a contestant before or during competition and thus enhance his or her sports performance.’ - The Council of Europe 1963 In 1998, after a number of countries had expressed their dissatisfaction with the control of doping in sports, the ‘World Anti-Doping Agency’ was established. Its purpose was to standardise rules on doping and the actions to be taken against it across the world. Members decided a substance must be added to the Official List of Prohibited Substances if it met 2 of the following criteria: Official legislation is constantly reviewed and edited by members, to match changes in technology, and keep up to date with pharmaceutical development, ensuring the organisations agreed rules never become out of date. a) it is performance enhancing,

b) it could be dangerous to the athlete’s health,

c) or it could be contrary to the spirit of sport.

It may also be added if it has the ability to hide the use of another drug or substance. A substance may be banned in competition or both in and out of competition dependant on its effects. so how do you catch a drug cheat ? so now we have the chemical constituents separated out.... what happens next? The boiling point in giant covalent structures increases as the number of electrons shared increases – a single covalent bond is weaker than a double or triple bond so has a lower boiling point. In general, giant covalent structures have very high boiling points due to the vast amounts of energy required to overcome the strength of the bonds holding each atom in the lattice. Ionisation Acceleration Deflection Step one STEP two step THREE nalysis So what effects retention time? mass Interaction with stationary phase LIQUID SOLID the more soluble the component is, the more it is slowed down by the presence of a liquid stationary phase Factors Affecting Solubility: the amount of absorption of the substances into the solid stationary phase determines the speed of retention Molecule size - increase in molecular weight causes an increase in intermolecular forces so causes a decrease in solubility.
Branching results in a more soluble molecule as there are reduced points of contact between molecules allowing for fewer intermolecular forces. Analysing results A polar solvent will only dissolve a polar solute and likewise, non-polar will only dissolve non-polar lighter molecules will travel faster than heavier ones so what are they testing for? Stimulants Hormones Painkillers Diuretics molecules based on the structure: Immunoassay Detection and An electric field is created after the ionisation chamber by two metal grids: a positively charged grid to repel the ions and a negatively charged grid to attract them. The ions move rapidly away from the positive grid towards the negative one which contains many holes allowing the ions path through at a range of different speeds, the lighter ions travel faster than heavier ones. Due to the laws of magnetism this movement of the charged ions creates a magnetic field. Cortisol Intense exercise also releases the hormone that breaks down muscle tissue called cortisol which causes sore muscles. The presence of anabolic steroids can prevent cortisol from binding to the muscle cell's receptor sites, inhibiting the breakdown process leading to reduced muscle fatigue. Anabolic Steroid: A synthetic hormone that resembles testosterone in promoting the growth of muscle. First isolated and synthesised in 1939 by a German Scientist. When used by athletes, the goal is to speed up the body's natural muscle-building process.
muscular hypertrophy : Lifting weights causes muscle fibres to tear, the body’s response is to repair the tears with a greater amount of new tissue creating stronger fibre. This causes muscle growth after a period of time. Steroids enhance the body’s ability to produce muscle by increasing cellular protein synthesis. Naturally produced in testes, ovaries and adrenal glands Diuretics promote the excretion of excess water and salts from the body. They are not used to enhance performance as such, but are used by athletes for rapid weight loss (e.g. jockeys, wrestlers and boxers where a weight limit applies) and to help dilute and eliminate illegal substances more quickly. Prohibited substances are tested for using antigen-antibody interaction. Antibodies are chosen which will bind to specific drug molecules and their presence can then be indicated by a solid precipitation of antigen-antibody complexes or the use of an enzyme or fluorescent marker. This method is less sensitive than Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. New Advancements A selection of painkillers called Narcotic Analgesics are illegal in sport due to their ability to mask the pain caused by injury which may cause an athlete to otherwise be unable to continue training or compete. Damaged cells produce chemicals which lower the threshold for specialised nerve cells called Nociceptors to detect pain. Painkillers inhibit the production of these chemicals by preventing enzymes from binding to the chemical and converting it to its active form. Hydropyrolysis tea research has shown drinking large likelihood of illegal testosterone being excreted in an athletes urine. quantities of tea can reduce the Tea contains high levels of anti-oxidants called catechins which inhibit the action of the enzymes which allows testosterone to be excreted in the athletes urine. Researchers at the University of Nottingham and Imperial College London have used a method used in oil exploration to create a new steroid testing technique called Hydropyrolysis. High pressure hydrogen bombards the sample in a reaction vessel at 150atm and 500C in the presence of an ammonium dioxydithiomolybdate [(NH4)2MoO2S2] catalyst. The functional groups in the molecule are replaced with hydrogen. These functional groups in steroids would usually hinder the separation during Gas Chromatography. The samples carbon 12/ carbon 13 ratios are then measured. As steroids produced for pharmaceutical uses are created from modifications of plant steroids, they contain a different isotopic ratio to those produced in the human body allowing the presence of illegal/artificial steroids to be detected. This method leaves the isotopic composition of the carbon skeleton unaffected unlike in other techniques. , so the results are more accurate. The reaction conditions must limit the production of mixtures of different molecules due to rearrangements in multifunctional and/or unsaturated steroids caused by the hydrogenation which result in less effective analysis. The retention times can be matched to those of pure samples of a drug suggesting its presence; however it is not solid proof. Alternatives altitude training thank you for watching,
I hope you learnt something new!
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