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Dreyfuss scandal & the emergence of the Int

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Alejandra HC

on 20 December 2013

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Transcript of Dreyfuss scandal & the emergence of the Int

Born 1859 in Mullhouse, France (Alsace)

Jew, spoke German and French

Member of the French Army

Found guilty of treason in 1894

Vindicated after many years

Died in 1935
Lived in Paris

Worked as free journalist

Found guilty of defamination in 1898

Fled to England 1898

1899: amnesty

Died in 1902 in Paris

Dreyfus scandal & the emergence of the Intellectual
Intellectuals & Culture
Historical Background
Third Republic : Parliamentary, Highly instable, policy of secularisation

The president had almost no power

All the great statesmen of this time have lost the elections

The Congress was afraid of another Napoleon

Matthias Mugratsch
Alejandra Hurtado


Intellectuals and Culture
The Emergence of the Modern Intellectual
The Dreyfus Affair
Cultural Creators
Person who is devoted to culture and creators of knowledge
: Elite not necessarily related to power or politically motivated
Historical background: Alsace and Lorraine

Third French Republic is built on a deep feeling of revenge, the French army has been humiliated

Sociological Background
The 1870 Franco-Prussian War; French defeat and fall of the Second Empire
Hatred for the Prussians and especially for Bismarck who is seen as the responsible for the war and the Prussian Victory
Campaign against Jews in the French army in 1882 in “La Libre Parole”

1886: publication of the “Jewish France” by Edouard Drumont

Rise of anti-Semitism and clericalism

Emile Zola
Alfred Drefuss
Sept 1894: cleaning lady found a „Bordereau“ in trash bin of German ambassador Max von Schwartzkoppen

He then gets arrested without confessing
13th of October 1894: Dreyfus is tricked by the Etat Major to make a confession
M. Drumont seemed obtain „authentic details“ through a letter stating the traitor belonged to the General Staff at the Ministry of War and he was a Jew

29th of October: the affair is mentioned in „La Libre parole“

-> Start of anti-semitic campaigns

Lack of evidence + secret files given to the judge

Dreyfus is found guilty and condemned to exile on Devil‘s Island
Second letter to M. Drumont, stating the traitor was Alfred Dreyfus

From 1894-1897: Betrayals and manipulation around the case

November 1897: Matthieu Dreyfus accuses Commandant Esterhàzy of writing the „bordereau“; found as not guilty

Dreyfus‘ and Zola‘s return to France; military trial in Rennes against Both found guilty

Dreyfus is given a reprieve (sign of being guilty?)

1898: Zola‘s open letter „J‘accuse“ is published on L‘Aurore accusing military and political high officials of plotting against Dreyfus and for Esterhàzy
1904: Revision of trial of Rennes due to discovery of fictious evidence

1906: annulation of trial of Rennes --> no further accusation of Dreyfus

Dreyfus joins again the French Army

Zola was a writer/journalist

Intellectuel written with capital letter: denounced it was only a small group

J‘accuse“ - transcends the type of cultural creator and becomes a public intellectual

Enhanced the roll of the press

Made Intellectuals interdependent to the

The emergence of the Modern Intellectual
The emergence of the Modern Intellectual
A new class of intellectuals emerged

Spoke an issue of importance to society creating Public Opinion.

Ever vigilant about defending Public Interest

Without MEDIA Dreyfus will have remained latent

Mass Movement : All citizens had inalienable Rights :

Mass Culture
1980's Intellectuelle definition: A person of the opposition to the bourgeois society
The emergence of the Modern Intellectual
Intimate and dependent relation with the MEDIA to be heard

He had a prestige as a Novelist and used it per se

Dreyfusards became a movement followed by B. Lazare, Jaurès and Clemenceau amongst others

Collective dimension : Forming opposing groups of opinion " Ligue de la Patrie Française"

Rights of men vs. Monarchical state above everything
Ruth, Harris. Dreyfus: Politics, Emotion, and the Scandal of the Century. Macmillan, 2010.
Harding, William. Dreyfus: the prisoner of Devil’s Island.
Cour d’assises, France. The Trial of Emile Zola. Cornell University.
Shivanandan, Mary. Emile Zola: Improbable Defender of Life.
Katrin Schultheiss, "The Dreyfus Affair and History," Journal of The Historical Society p 203

Que el 2014 trIk hou van je Alejandra!aiga salud, amor y prosperidad
Para que en estas fechas, la felicidad abunde.
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