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Professional Practice Mind Map
Transcript of Professional Practice Mind Map
A summary of what
this role means to us.......
This is a presentation summarising the key aspects of RTLB Practice within the six domain areas of the core paper.
The ideas have been collated by Gaylene Findlay and Glenys Gibson, Otautahi Cluster 35, from the Specialist Forum contributions.
Communities of Learning
Ko Te Ahurei O Te Tamaiti
Arahia O Tatou Mahi
Compare Assessment Practices across Specialist areas
Knowledge of Assessment Models and Practices
Demonstrate an understanding of
the concept and role of culture
Demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of biculturalism and multiculturalism
Reflect on own cultural values, practices and beliefs
Human development and learning theories
RTLB Professional Practice Map
Ethical Practice for Various Specialist Teaching Areas
Knowledge and Skills of Ethical and Reflective Practice
Professional Learning and Identity
Maori health strategy - He Korowai Oranga
Wellness wheel - (Witner, J.M., and Sweeney, T.J., 1992)
Mindset in relation to study
Study planning - massey university
Positive psychology on improving the mind
Balance of work life integration
Coping with rural isolation
Strengths based approach
Self-efficacy - Bandura (1997)
Effective learning environments - Maslows levels of learning (2001, pg. 92
Working with family,whanau
Awareness of public figures and impact on practice eg Celia Lashlie, Doctor Weaver and Nigel Latta
Nga Kairaranga - food for thought
Mason Durie model of Te Whare Tapa Wha - Rangatahi development (2014)
Demonstrate an understanding of
the concept and role of culture
Reflect on own cultural values,
practices and beliefs
21st century learning
Academic literature and reading
APA referencing/endnote/referencing tools
‘digital immigrants’ (Prensky, 2001)
“The Skill Model”.(Eriksen 2010)
Using Wikis in education to increase participation.
Higher order thinking required.
Community of practice - 4 pillars of successful communities of practice (Collison, 2013)
Work load planning tool at http://www.massey.ac.nz/massey/learning/distance-learning/workload-planning-tool.cfm
Assignment planning calculator (http://owll.massey.ac.nz/academic-writing/assignment-planning-calculator.php).
Time management tool at:
Digital competence - information, safety, problem solving, content creation, communication
Citizenship - Sophie Tukukino video clips - positive impact on students
Competency, Keeping up to date
Assistive Technology - Ipads, apps, programmes etc
Social learning networks
The Treaty of Waitangi Principles - Partnership, Participation, Protection
He aha te Tikanga? What is culture?
influences our expectations of what is appropriate or inappropriate
reflects the values of a society
provides us with patterns of behaviour, thinking, feeling and interacting and
frames our experiences (Georgina Horiana Clarke, 2015)
Tikanga Maori - Te Wananga o Aotearoa
Culture of power (Kivel, 2004)
Creating a culturally responsive classroom and context for learning (Pere, 1994) (Macfarlane, 1997,2004)
Te Kotahitanga Effective teacher profile:
Whakapiringatanga (Bishop and Berryman, 2003)
Maria Tibble - she describes three important attributes a professional practitioner should consider to
be culturally responsive: pedagogy, culture and relationships extending to whanau, hapu and iwi.
She reinforces that these three attributes make you an effective teacher regardless of being
Māori or not. (Tibble, M. 2012, May 4).
Halls Iceberg Model of Culture
The challenge of understanding other cultures
Sadly these days knowing your culture and identity is a choice - Lee Flutey (2015)
Cutural awareness and knowing your own culture
Culture shock and an understanding of cultural displacement
Cultural location and applying this to pedagodgy
Pasifika views on diverse needs eg. Samoan attitudes on disability affected by religious beliefs; Cook Islands - spiritual and religious model
The Educultural Wheel (Macfarlane,2004)
Tataiako Competencies - Wananga, Whanaungatanga, Manaakitanga, Tangata Whenuatanga, Ako.
He pepeha - Mihimihi - awareness of structure and protocol
“ The culture of the child cannot enter the classroom until it has first entered the consciousness of the teacher”. (Allen, Taleni & Robertson, 2009. p49).
Relationship between core values and beliefs and practices - Julia Atkin - http://www.learningtolearn.sa.edu.au/tfel/files/links/atkins_valuesbeliefs. pdf
Restorative Practices as a means for creating culturally safe schools
Strategies to support presence, participation and achievement of pasifika - Teacher Learning Stories
Individualism versus Collectivism
Allen, P., Taleni, L. T., & Robertson, J. (2009). 'In order to teach you, I must know you'. The Pasifika initiative: A professional development project for teachers [online]. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 44 (2),47-62.
Bishop, R., Berryman, M., Tiakiwai, S., & Richardson, C. (2003) Te Kotahitanga: The Experiences of Year 9 and 10 Maori Students in Mainstream Classrooms Report to the Ministry of Education
Burgon, Jacky., Hipkins, Rosemary., Hodgen, Edith. (2010) The primary school curriculum: Assimilation, adaptation or transformation NZC at primary and intermediate level: Findings from the NZCER
National Survey of Primary Schools. New Zealand Council for Educational Research.Referenced from: http://www.nzcer.org.nz/system/files/Primary_school_curriculum_Web.pdf
Davis, P. (2015) Critical elements for raising Maori achievement. Retrieved via NZC Online blog http://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/Curriculum-resources/NZC-
From <http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/book/view.php?id=3184&chapterid=8118> Professor Linda Tuhiwai Smith (1999) in Pihama,l., & Penehira, M.(2005)
Gorinski, R.Dr., & Fraser, C. (2006) Literature Review on the Effective Engagement of Pasifika Parents & Communities in Education: page 21. Referenced from:http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/pasifika/5907
Kivel, P. (2004). The culture of power. Retrieved fromhttp://www.isr.umich.edu/home/diversity/resources/culture-of-power.pdf.
Macfarlane, Angus H (2004). The Hikairo Rationale: Restorying the Individual
Macfarlane, A. (2004) Kia hiwa ra! Listen to Culture - Maori students' plea to educators.Wellington: NZCER. Retrieved March 18th, 2015, https://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/topics/pasifika_education
Macfarlane, A., Glynn, T., Cavanagh, T., & Bateman, S. (2007). Creating culturally Safe Schools for Māori students. The Australian Journal for Indigenous Education, 36, 64-76.
Pere, R. R. (1994). Ako: Concepts of Learning in the Maori Tradition. Wellington, Te Kohanga Reo National Trust Board.
Specialist Teaching Programme (2015) Core Domain 2 | Book 2 The iceberg concept of culture. [image]. Retrieved from http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/book/view.php?id=3185&chapterid=6687
Te Kete Ipurangi. (2014). Teachers as learners: Improving outcomes for Māori and Pasifika students through inquiry. Retrieved at http://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/Curriculum-stories/Case-studies/Teachers-as-learners-Inquiry
Te Piringa ki Runga - http://www.nzcer.org.nz/system/files/set2009_2_042.pdf
Tibble, M. (2012, May 4). Culture counts in the classroom. Retrieved fromhttp://edtalks.org/video/maria-tibble-culture-counts-classroom
Tibble, M. (2012, July 21). Professional responsibility to Māori students. Retrieved fromhttp://edtalks.org/video/maria-tibble-professional-responsibility-māori-students
Demonstrate an understanding
of the concepts of
biculturalism and multiculturalism
Assimilation, adaptation or transformation - reality in practice, effective engagement of pasifika families and communities
Hikairo Rationale - Macfarlane (1997) - bicultural approach to working with students with challenging behaviours
Te Pikinga ki Runga - Raising possibilities framework
Ka Hikitia (2013-2017)
Building relationships with students
The focus of raising Maori Achievement - http://edtalks.org/video/phoebe-davis-critical-elements-raising-m%C4%81ori-achievement
Pasifika Education Plan - target 85% of Pasifika learners will be at or above in National Standards across years 1-8 by end of 2017.
ESOL - resources for supporting learners.
All students learning Te Reo - http://edtalks.org/video/tamara-bell-te-reo-m%C4%81ori-english-medium-schools#.VQJJddzEcMo.gmail
Cultural influences and diversity
Maori language immersion schools - Kura Kaupapa
(Tuhiwai Smith 1999)
Aroha kit e tangata (respect for people)
Kanohi kitea (present yourself to people face to face)
Titro whakango…korero (look, listen…speak)
Kaua e takahia te mana o te tangata ( do not trample over the mana of the people)
Kaua e mahiki (don’t flaunt your knowledge)
Mā te huruhuru te manu ka rere
With feathers a bird flies
Critically discuss legislation, policy
and curriculum documents across
Specialist Teaching areas.
Critically review historical and current
perspectives on special and inclusive education,
disability and diversity.
Demonstrate knowledge of human
development and learning theories.
The Treaty of Waitangi
NZ Curriculum Document and Key Competencies
Ka Hikitia - Managing for success
Success For All
Resourcing for educational initiatives
Frameworks to expand and enhance Level One of the New Zealand Curriculum -(The Central Region Special School’s (CRSSC)
Te Taiako: Cultural Competencies for Teachers of Maori Learners
Using Macfarlane's (2009) Te Pikinga ki Runga model to apply Treaty of Waitangi Principles.
New Zealand Disability Strategy
Human Rights Act
United Nations Enable
ERO and inclusive practices in schools
SNUP - Schools Network Upgrade - improving schools’ infrastructure.
Legislation, policy and curriculum documents
What does and inclusive school look like?
Positive Start - MOE/RTLB initiative - smooth transitions across settings
Use of assistive technology and creating a UDL environment.
MLE and ML
Special or included?
National Standards, Assessment and Inclusion
Barriers and Enablers - Blind Spots - Helen Turnbull
Maori views on disability
New Zealand Disability Strategy
Ainscow’s working model (1997)
Equality vs equity
Learning beyond the classroom http://elearning.tki.org.nz/Beyond-the-classroom/Learning-beyond-the-classroom/A-marae-based-learning-programme/Teaching-and-learning
Perspectives on Special and inclusive education,
disability and diversity
Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development
The frontal cortex of the teenage brain
Bronfenbrenner and Vygotsky fitting Ecological approach of RTLB practice
Te ahuatanga o te ako o te iwi Maori/ Maori Human Development learning
Vygotsky v Piaget - Constructivist Theory
Nature v nurture
Erikson - Psychosocial stages of development
Skinner - Operant Conditioning - ABC model and consequences for behaviour.
Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences
Malsow’s Hierarchy of needs
Maori well-being and development - Arapera Royal Tangaere (1997)
Glasser - choice theory
Bandura - social cognitive theory
Jerome Brunner - multiple intelligences
Michael Durrant - solutions-based theory
Donald Schon - reflection in/on action
Michael Fulham - Educational change
Hill Walker - Behaviourist
Angus Macfarlane - Ka Hikitia
Andy Hargreaves - Change in Leadership in education
Marie Clay - Reading Recovery
Alison Davies - Literacy
Bruce D. Perry - Neurosequential Model of Therapeutics
John Bowlby - Evolutionary Theory of Attachment
Ainscow, M. (1997), Towards Inclusive Schooling. British Journal of Special Education, 24: 3–6. doi: 10.1111/1467-8527.00002
Education Review Office. (2015). Inclusive practices for students with special needs in schools. Retrieved http://www.ero.govt.nz/National-
Te Whāiti P, McCarthy M, Durie A (eds) Mai I Rangiaatea: Māori Wellbeing and Development, Auckland University Press with Bridget Williams Books, University of
Auckland, New Zealand, 1997
Mikaere-Wallis, N. (2013). Adolescent Brain [Podcast]. Retrieved April 8, 2015 from http://podcast.radionz.co.nz/ntn/ntn-20130704-1126-parenting_
Ministry of Education. (1989). Education Act. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
Ministry of Education. (1995). Special Education Policy Guidelines. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
Ministry of Education (2014) National Standards: an introduction for parents, your child’s progress and achievement. Retrieved on 12/04/15 from
Ministry of Education; Resource Teacher, Learning and Behaviour Service Toolkit; Success for All, Every School Every Child; file:///C:/Users/
Ministry of Education; What an Inclusive School Looks Like; September 2014; http://www.minedu.govt.nz/~/media/MinEdu/Files/EducationSectors/
Turnbull, H. (2013) Helen Turnbull: Inclusion, exclusion, illusion and collusion ( video file).
Article 24 - Education. (n.d.). Retrieved 30 March 2015, from http://www.un.org/disabilities/default.asp?id=284
Green, M., Piel, J. A., Piel, J. A., & Piel, J. A. (2001). Theories of human development: a comparative approach (1st ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Key competencies / The New Zealand Curriculum / Kia ora - NZ Curriculum Online. (2007, September 14). Retrieved 30 March 2015, from
Pinker, S. (2002). The Blank Slate: Denying Human Nature in Modern Life. United States: Viking Press Inc.
Proverbs - Ngā Whakataukī, Ngā Whakatauākī - Māori Language.net. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.maorilanguage.net/maori-
firstname.lastname@example.org. (n.d.-a). Incorporating The Treaty Of Waitangi - Office for Disability Issues - UAT. Retrieved 30 March 2015, from
email@example.com. (n.d.-b). Objective 3: Provide the best education for disabled people - Office for Disability Issues - UAT. Retrieved 30 March 2015,
(n.d.). Retrieved 30 March 2015, from file:///Users/rtlb/Downloads/RTLB%20Toolkit_Professional%20practice%20(1).pdf
Te Whāriki – ECE Educate - New Zealand Ministry of Education (no date). Available at: http://www.educate.ece.govt.nz/learning/curriculumandlearning/
tewhariki.aspx (Accessed: 30 March 2015).
Nau Te Rourou With your basket
Naku Te Rourou And my basket
Ka ora te iwi There will be ample
Professional Knowledge and Skills
evidence based practice
Communities of Learning
Evidence based practice
Professional Knowledge and Skills
Purakau - Story telling
Effective literacy practice in years 1-4 and years 5-8 - MOE Handbook
Strengths based versus Deficit based approaches - Scerra (2011)
Understanding the principles for UDL - Universal Design for Learning
Teaching as Inquiry
Qualitative versus Quantitative Research - Dobrovolny & Fuentes (2008)
Motivational Interviewing - Communication as a Key Factor - Mentis, Kearney and Bevan-Brown (2012)
Communities of practice - interprofessionals working together -
Etienne Wenger (2009)
Understanding supportive relationships
Interprofessional Education - Mentis, Kearney and Bevan-Brown (2012)
Partnership with parents
Worldwide Communities of Practice
Evidence Based Practice
“Evidence – based practice is commonly understood to be the integration of the best and most current
research evidence with clinical expertise and relevant stakeholder perspectives.”(Schlosser & Sigafoos, 2008)
David Mitchell (2014) What really works in Special and inclusive Education - using evidence based
Growth mindset and Cognitive Strategy Instruction - Nathan Mikaere Wallis
Springboards to Practice - MOE
School-wide positive behaviour support - PBS and IYT
An awareness of enablers and barriers to EBP
Intervention integrity - Reed and Reed (2008)
Early Words by Yolanda Soryl
Educultural Wheel - Macfarlane (2009)
Circle time within the classroom - Roffey & McCarthy (2013)
Social Stories - Carole Gray (2010)
A parent’s guide to evidence-based practice and autism. National Autism Center. (2009).
Qualitative versus Quantitative Research - Dobrovolny & Fuentes (2008)
Dobrovolny, J., & Fuentes, S. (2008). Quantitative versus qualitative evaluation: A tool to decide which
to use. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer sid=ff18ba15-3cd1-42fa-86f5-387ac6fc62c4@sessionmgr111&vid=6&hid=126
Ministry of Education (n.d) Springboards to practice. (2015). Evidence-based practice. Retrieved fromhttp://
MacFarlane, A. H. (2009, April 1). Discipline, Democracy and Diversity Creating culturally-safe learning
environments. Retrieved 12 March 2015, from file:///Users/rtlb/Downloads/AngusMacfarlaneCreatingCulturallySafeLearningEnvironments%20(1).pdf
Mentis, M., Kearney, A., & Bevan-Brown, J. (2012). Interprofessional learning and its contribution to
inclusive education. In S. Carrington & J. MacArthur (Eds.), Teaching in Inclusive School Communities (pp. 295-312).
Australia: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved fromhttp://masseyuniversity
Mitchell, D. (2008). What really works in special and inclusive education. Using evidence-based teaching
strategies.Milton Park: Routledge.
National Autism Center. (2009). A parent’s guide to evidence-based practice and autism: providing information
and resources for families of children with autism spectrum disorders. Randolph, Massachusetts.
Reed, F. D. D., & Reed, D. D. (2008). Towards an understanding of evidence-based practice. Journal of Early and
Intensive Behavior Intervention, 5(2), 20–29. http://doi.org/10.1037/h0100416
Scerra, N. (2011) Strength based practice: The evidence. Retrieved 9 April, 2015, from http://www.children
Schlosser, R., & Sigafoos, J. (2008). Identifying ‘evidence-based practice’ versus ‘empirically supported
treatment’.Evidence-Based Communication Assessment And Intervention, 2(2), 61-62.
Sue Roffey, & Florence McCarthy. (2013). Circle Solutions, a philosophy and pedagogy for learning
positive relationships: What promotes and inhibits sustainable outcomes? The Internation Journal of
Emotional Education, 5(1), 36–55.
Pai tū, pai hinga, na wai, na oti.
One may work properly, another may act,
yet the sum total is the completion of the work.
Knowledge of Assessment Models and Practices
Compare Assessment Practices
across Specialist Areas
Learning Stories- Bourke, Mentis and Todd (2010).
Authentic assessment, criterion referenced assessment, dynamic assessment, formative assessment,
ipsative assessment, norm-referenced assessment, summative assessment - Rhian Williams
(Specialist Forum post, 2015)
Behaviour models of assessment - behavioural, biological/biophysical, psychodynamic, cognitive behavioural and sociological -
Renee Taheny (Specialist Forum post, 2015)
Overall teacher Judgements
Student and Parent Voice as assessment tools
LASS and Lucid Assessments
Humanistic, constructivist, developmental, cognitive
Aromatawai - includes assessment but goes beyond to include the nature of learning and teaching
- Rukuhia Rarangahia (MOE 2014)
Weschler - Intelligence test, Torrance - Creative Thinking, Sternberg - Triarchic Theory, Carr - Learning Stories,
Piaget - Cognitive Theory, Goleman - Emotional Intelligence, Gardener - Multiple Intelligence,
Feurstein - Mediated Learning Experience. - Carol Styles (Specialist Forum post, 2015)
Narrative versus Medical Assessment - Macartney (2011)
FBA - Functional Behavioral Assessment
Carolina Curriculum - EI
Oral Language Assessment
Student Reinforcement - L&B - Cartwright and Cartwright (1970)
Special Assessment Conditions
Learner-led Conferences as an Assessment Tool
McAlpine Scales - G&T
B4 School Hearing and Vision Tests - EI
Dyslexia Screening - CEN
Tony Attwood Australian Scale for Aspergers - ASD
Functional Vision Assessment - Vision
TAPs - auditory screening tool - deaf
Assessment Tools Across Specialist Areas - Findlay and Gibson (Domain 5 portfolio 2015)
Applications and uses of appropriate technology tools
What technology works? - Sider and Maich (2014)
SETT framework - student, environments, tasks, tools.
Black box approach
Visual prompts using Boardmaker
Minecraft and games as AT tools
VLN - Visual Learning Network
Communication assistive technology for Early Intervention
Apps on ipads - communication, behaviour, dyslexia, augmentative and alternative education, evaluation.
Autism Apps - www.autismspeaks.org/austism-apps - (L.McLay May 2014)
Bourke, R. Mentis, M. & Todd, L. (2011) Visibly learning: teachers’ assessment practices for students with high and very high needs, International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15:4, 405-419, DOI: 10.1080/13603110903038488 cited in Specialist Teaching Programme. (2015). Assessment. Core Domain 5 Book 1. Retrieved from http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/book/view.php?id=3198 May 22, 2015.
Cartwright,C.A., and Cartwright, G. P. (1970). Determining the Motivational Systems of Individual Children. Teaching Exceptional Children 2;3, 143-149.
Macartney, B. (2011). Disabled by the Discourse: Two families’ narratives of inclusion. Exclusion and resistance in education. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Canterbury University, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Maich, K., and Sider, S. (2014) Assistive Technology Tools :Supporting Literacy Learning for All Learners in the Inclusive Classroom. Retrieved from: www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html
'E kore te kumara e korero mo tona ake reka'
'The kumara does not say how sweet it is'
Knowledge and Skills of
Ethical and Reflective practice
Ethical Practice for various
Specialist Teaching Areas
Ethical and Reflective Practice
Learning through Reflection: The Cycle
‘We do not learn from experience… we learn from reflecting on experience” John Dewey
“Reflection is pivotal to professional development, where the re-thinking of experience provides added personal meaning and learning” (Hoban, 2002)
RTLB toolkit practice sequence and code of core values
AToL - model for reflective practice - Poskitt & Taylor (2007)
Communication and Relationships - Kolb (1984)
Maintaining a reflective practice portfolio, Te Pūtake o Aoraki - S. Macfarlane (2011)
Mindful Reflection - Dray & Wisneski (2011)
Ethical Response Cycle - Newman & Pollnitz (2002)
Smyth’s Framework of Reflection on Action - Describing, informing, confronting, reconstructing (1989, pg 7)
Ethical Decision Making Framework - ethic of justice, critique, care and of the profession - Branson (2015)
Three approaches to Ethical Decision Making - The rule/principle approach, the character structure approach and belief ideal approach - Nash (1991)
Video for reflection
Whakatauki for reflection
T - Thinking – processing and reflecting on events
O - Observing - taking note of the ecological environment; the cultural nuances
I - Identifying – drawing from culturally relevant information and experience
T - Talking - contributing to the collaborative conversations – when appropriate
U - Understanding – demonstrating a knowledge of culturally relevant practice
Kidder’s Model of Ethical Analysis - Rushworth Kidder (1995)
Matatika - Te Reo Maori to describe ethics . Mata = face/eye Tika = right/true/correct. Vaughan Rapatahana (Specialist Forum Post, 2015)
NZ Teacher’s Council Code of Ethics
Speech Language Therapists’ Code of Ethics
Code of Ethics for Occupational Therapists - Occupational Therapy Board of New Zealand
- Kaihaumanu Turoro o Aotearoa
Medical profession- NZMA Code of Ethics.
Statement of Ethical Principles for Social Workers
Code of Ethics for Psychologists working in New Zealand/Aotearoa
New Zealand Association of Counsellors - NZAC - Te Roopu Kaiwhiriwhiri o Aotearoa
Branson, C. M. (2015). The Nature & Practice of Ethical Educational Leadership.
NZEALS Workshop, New Plymouth.
Dray, B., & Wisneski, D., (2011). Mindful Reflection as a Process for Developing Culturally Responsive Practices.Teaching Exceptional Children, 44:1, 28-36
Kidder, R. (1995). How good people make tough choices. New York: Morrow.
Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Nash, R.J. (1991). Three conceptions of ethics for teacher educators. Journal of Teacher Education 42, no. 3: 163–72.
Poskitt, J., & Taylor, K. (2007). Assess to Learn professional development: impact on teacher learning. Retrieved from educationgroup.co.nz
Macfarlane, S. (2011). Te Pūtake o Aoraki: Maintaining a professional practice portfolio.A position paper (in progress)
Newman, L .& Pollnitz, L. (2002). Professional, Ethical and Legal Issues in Early Childhood . French Forest, NSW : Pearson Education Australia
Smyth, J. (1989) Developing and Sustaining Critical Reflection in Teacher Education. Journal of Education, 7-19.
Let the uniqueness of the child guide our work
He waka eke noa
A canoe which we are all in with no exception
Whāia te mātauranga hei oranga mō koutou
Seek after learning
for the sake of your well-being
RTLB Guiding Principles:
1. Inclusive teaching
2 .Cultural responsiveness
3. Ecological approach
4. Collaborative and seamless model of service
5. Strengths based
7. Evidence based
Bandura, Albert. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control, New York: Freeman, p. 604.
Barbara Neža Brečko firstname.lastname@example.org Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) Spain. Anusca Ferrari email@example.com Reggio Emilia, Italy.
Boyes, Karen. (2001). Creating an Effective Learning Environment, Tauranga, New Zealand: Peaceful Living Publications.
Collison, C. (2013, March 25). Four Pillars of Successful Communities of Practice. Retrieved February 25, 2015, from All of us are smarter than any of us: https://chriscollison.wordpress.com/2013/03/25/four-pillars-of-successful-communities-of-practice/
D1 Book 1: Professional Learning and Identity, Retrieved from http://masseyuniversity.mrooms.net/mod/book/view.php?id=3178&chapterid=6650
Dweck, C. (2014). The power of believing that you can improve. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/carol_dweck_the_power_of_believing_that_you_can_improve?language=en
Eriksen, Jørgen W. (2010). "Should Soldiers Think before They Shoot?". Journal of Military Ethics 9 (3): 195–218. doi:10.1080/15027570.2010.510861.
Latta. N. (2015). Retrieved by https://www.facebook.com/nigellatta
Mason Durie. (1998) Whare tapa wha model [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.tera.govt.nz/
Ministry of Health. 2014. He Korowai Oranga: Maori Health Strategy 2014.
M.Prensky,(2001). “Digital Natives,Digital Immigrants,” On the Horizon, Vol.9, No.5,2001, pp.1-6
Weaver, L. (2011). Rushing Woman's Syndrome. Little Green Frog: Auckland, New Zealand.
Yves Punie firstname.lastname@example.org Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) Spain. DIGCOMP: a Framework for Developing and Understanding Digital Competence in Europe. eLearning Papers • ISSN: 1887-1542 • www.openeducationeuropa.eu/en/elearning_papers n.º 38 • April 2014, pages 3,9