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Racism in Football

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Cheryl Cutting

on 27 November 2014

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Transcript of Racism in Football

Racism in Football
Introduction
Football grounds have provided one of the largest public arenas in which racism can be openly expressed.

There have been numerous incidents of racism but what has been done to combat this issue?
Timeline
1970's and 1980's
Racist chanting took the form of members of the crowd making monkey noises at black players on the pitch, which still happens today.
Arthur Wharton
Players' Perception's
Mario Balotelli
Gary Lineker
Philippe Coutinho
Luis Suárez
Dani Alves
Mario Balotelli
“Racism makes me feel alone, I’ve changed my mind and if it's going to happen one more time, I’ll leave the pitch.”
Dani Alves
"Someone in the crowd just threw a banana at Dani Alves. Picked it up, peeled it, ate it, and proceeded to take the corner. Top response"
- Gary Lineker
"With my mate Phil Coutinho #SayNoToRacism #WeAreAllMonkeys"
- Luis Suárez
"Racism has no place in football or society. Join me in rejecting discrimination #WeAreAllMonkeys #NoToRacism"
- Martin Schulz
Supporters' Perception's
A survey of 2,500 football fans suggests the vast majority believe racism has never left the British game.

The survey also suggests fans want anti-racism campaign Kick It Out to do more, with 79% claiming the campaign had only been "partially effective".

Different Forms of Racism
Sociological Theories
Symbolic Interactionism
Reasons Behind Racism
Who is Responsible for Dealing With Racism in Football?
Logo Quiz
Logo Quiz Answers
Current Developments
Cases of Racism
Institutional racism can be defined as “the collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture, or ethnic origin” (Cole 2009, p.91)
Individual Racism can be defined as “individuals acting upon their belief in their own racial superiority and the inferiority of other races” (Alvarez 2009. p. 401)
Overt racism “operates on a personal level, whereby one individual hates another individual because of his or her racial origins.” (Wilson 2005, p1)
“Covert racism may be viewed as racism which is hidden; secret; private; covered; disguised; insidious; or concealed” (Coates, 2011, p.1)
Symbolic interactionism is a sociological approach to society - it sees society as the product of people's interactions with others as opposed to the structural-functional and social-conflict approach.
Critical Race Theory
Do the Government have any say?
Is it all up to the FA/FIFA?
Who should be responsible?

What racism campaigns are there currently in Football?
Kick it out
Show Racism The Red Card
FARE - Football Against Racism in Europe
Empower Sport
Rooney Rule
There have been a number of incidents of racism in football over the years.
Can you name any?

John Terry
Luis Suárez
Dani Alves
Yaya Touré
Mario Balotelli
Kevin-Prince Boateng

References
Racism Quiz
Discussion Task
Conclusion
(Back et al 1998)
October 2011
The ex-Liverpool striker Luis Suárez was given an eight-match ban for racially abusing Manchester United's Patrice Evra.

John Terry was banned for four matches and fined £220,000 for racially abusing QPR defender Anton Ferdinand.
October 2011
Lord Herman Ouseley
In 1993, he set up the project to tackle racism in football and is the Chairperson of Kick It Out
Arthur Wharton is widely considered to be the first black professional association football player in the world.
Comparison Of Racism Today From Racism Of The Early 1900’s
Is there any difference?
Have football campaigns helped combat the issues?
(Rationis. V, 2014 Social Issues Research Centre)
“The preconceptions we have of others act as a kind of short hand for who they are and where they are located in social hierarchies”
Gaining psychological advantage over opponent
Personal views
Traditional norms and values
The FA
UEFA
FIFA
Benfica vs Porto 2012
Reasons for the increase in Social Media Racism?
(Blumer, H. 1986)
(Vasili, P. 1998)
(Modood, T. 1994)
(BBC, 2011)
(The Guardian, 2011)
(Masoliver.D, 2012)
(YouTube 2012)
(Niyi, 2013)
(YouTube, 2014)
(Hylton, 2009, p.1)
Alvarez, A.N., 2009. Racism: “It Isn’t Fair”. In: N. TEWARI and A.N ALVAREZ, eds. Asian American Psychology: Current Perspectives. London: Taylor & Francis.
Back, L., Crabbe, T. and Solomos, J. 2001, The Changing Face of Football, Oxford: Berg.
BBC, 2011. Liverpool striker Luis Suarez handed eight-match FA ban [online][viewed 2 November 2014]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/football/16186556
BBC, 2012. Euro 2012: Croatia fined for Mario Balotelli racial abuse [online][viewed 4 November 2014]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/football/18461087
BBC, 2012. John Terry banned and fined by FA over Anton Ferdinand incident [online][viewed 2 November 2014]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/football/19723020
BBC, 2014. Brazil football club Gremio banned over racism incident [online][viewed 10 November 2014]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-29052037
Blumer, H. 1986. Symbolic interactionism: Perspective and method. Univ of California Press.
Coates, R.D, 2011. Covert Racism: An introduction. In: R.D COATES, eds. Covert Racism: Theories, Institutions, and Experiences. Leiden: Brill.
Chambers, L., 2014. Racism in football exists – but do fans think it’s a problem? [online][viewed 12 November 2014]. Available from: https://yougov.co.uk/news/2013/09/16/racism-european-football/
Coates, R.D, 2011. Covert Racism: An introduction. In: R.D COATES, eds. Covert Racism: Theories, Institutions, and Experiences. Leiden: Brill.
Cole, M., 2009. Critical Race Theory and Education: A Marxist Response. New York: Palgrave Macmillian.
FA, 2014. Rules and Governance – Race Equality [online][viewed 10 November 2014]. Available from: http://www.thefa.com/football-rules-governance/equality/race-equality
FIFA, 2011. FIFA against racism: a decade of milestones [online][viewed 10 November 2014]. Available from: http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/socialresponsibility/news/newsid=1384919/
FUTBOL PULSE, 2013. Kick Racism Out Of Football Logo [digital image][viewed 11 November 2014]. Available from: http://futbolpulse.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/kick_racism_out1.png
Herman, N. J., & Reynolds, L. T. (Eds.). 1994. Symbolic interaction: An introduction to social psychology. Rowman & Littlefield.
Hoberman, J. M. 1997 .Darwin's athletes: How sport has damaged Black America and preserved the myth of race. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Hylton, K., 2009. Race and Sport: Critical Race Theory. London: Routledge.
Maguire, J. 1991. The media-sport production complex: The case of American football in Western European societies. European Journal of Communication, 6(3), 315-335.
Modood, T. 1994, Racial equality: colour, culture and justice (Vol. 5). Institute for Public Policy Research.
SHOW RACISM THE RED CARD, 2014. Show Racism The Red Card Logo [digital image][viewed 11 November 2014]. Available from: http://www.srtrc.org/images/srtrc_logo.gif
Suupertommy, 2011. Stand up, speak up logo [digital image][viewed 11 November 2014]. Available from: http://suupertommy.deviantart.com/art/Stand-up-speak-up-214755599
Telegraph, 2014. Kick it Out survey concludes racism still rife in football [online][viewed 10 November 2014]. Available from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/football/10704783/Kick-it-Out-survey-concludes-racism-still-rife-in-football.html
UEFA, 2014. No to Racism [online][viewed 10 November 2014]. Available from: http://www.uefa.org/social-responsibility/respect/no-to-racism/index.html
Vasili, P. 1998. The first black footballer, Arthur Wharton, 1865-1930: an absence of memory (Vol. 11). Psychology Press.
West, R., Turner, L., H., 2010 Introducing Communication Theory: Analysis and Application (4th Ed.). New York. McGraw Hill
Wilson, C.E., 2005. Race and Racism in Literature. Westport: Greenwood Press.
YouTube. 2012. How to shut up racist fans. [Online Video]. 27 May. Available from: [Accessed: 06 November 2014].
YouTube. 2014. How to shut up racist fans. [Online Video]. 29 April. Available from: [Accessed: 06 November 2014].
References
References
Cheryl Cutting & Heather Troth
(UEFA, 2013)
(Chambers, 2014)
In the current game of football today which forms of racism are most prominent?
Dani Alves racist incident more of a positive outcome than the Campaigns?
Is social media helping combat racism?
What needs to be done?
(The FA, 2014) (UEFA, 2014) (FIFA, 2014)
(Lets Kick Racism Out Of Football, 2014) (Stand up, Speak up, 2014) (Show Racism The Red Card, 2014) (Say No To Racism, 2014)
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