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Levels of Processing
Transcript of Levels of Processing
-Takes two forms
1. Structural processing (appearance) which is when we encode only the physical qualities of something. Example: How the letters look
2. Phonemic Processing
SP only involves maintenance rehearsal (repetition to help us hold something in the STM) and leads to fairly short-term retention of information.This is the only type of rehearsal to take place within the multi-store model.
3.Semantic processing, which happens when we encode the meaning of a word to similar words with similar meaning.
Deep processing involves elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful analysis (example: Images, thinking, and associations) of information and leads to better recall. Example: Giving words meaning or linking them with previous knowledge.
The idea that the way information is encoded affects how well it is remembered. The deeper the level of processing, the easier the information is to remember.
Craik and Tulving (1975)
We can process information in three ways:
- When we encode its sound.
Aim:To investigate how deep and shallow processing affects memory recall.
Method:Participants were presented with a series of 60 words about which they had to answer one of three questions. Some questions required the participants to process the word in a deep way (e.g. semantic) and others in a shallow way (e.g. structural and phonemic). For example:
Structural / visual processing: Is the word in capital letters or small letters?
Phonemic / auditory processing: Does the word rhyme with . . .?
Semantic processing: Does the word go in this sentence . . . . ?
Participants were then given a long list of 180 words into which the original words had been mixed. They were asked to pick out the original words.
Participants recalled more words that were semantically processed compared to phonemically and visually processed words.
Semantically processed words involve elaboration rehearsal and deep processing which results in more accurate recall. Phonemic and visually processed words involve shallow processing and less accurate recall.
Strengths & Weaknesses
The theory is an improvement on Atkinson & Shiffrin’s account of transfer from short term memory (STM) to long term memory (LTM).
The levels of processing model changed the direction of memory research. It showed that encoding was not a simple, straightforward process. This widened the focus from seeing long-term memory as a simple storage unit to seeing it as a complex processing system.
Craik and Lockhart's ideas led to hundreds of experiments, most of which confirmed the superiority of 'deep' semantic processing for remembering information. It explains why we remember some things much better and for much longer than others. This explanation of memory is useful in everyday life because it highlights the way in which elaboration, which requires deeper processing of information, can aid memory.
Despite these strengths, there are a number of criticisms of the levels of processing theory:
• It does not explain how the deeper processing results in better memories.
• Deeper processing takes more effort than shallow processing and it could be this, rather than the depth of processing that makes it more likely people will remember something.
• The concept of depth is vague and cannot be observed. Therefore, it cannot be objectively measured.
Rate these words for how pleasant they are - from 1 to 5:
Count the number of vowels in these words:
Do these sums:
Give yourself a minute.Don't cheat. Write down as many of those words as you can remember in any order.