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History of Supercapacitors
Transcript of History of Supercapacitors
History of Supercapacitors
Leyden Jar Invention
wax-impregnated paper dielectric capacitor with foil electrodes
was invented by
These were the earliest capacitors used in
Patents on the electrolytic capacitor technology date back to
was granted a patent for a
borax electrolyte aluminum (Al) electrolytic capacitor
(The first wet electrolytic capacitors appeared in radios in the late 1920s. These had a very limited lifespan, and the company that introduced them went bankrupt. In 1936, Cornell Dubilier opened a factory in Plainfield, NJ, and introduced a line of commercial Al electrolytic capacitors. Electrolytic capacitors did not become highly reliable until World War II when sufficient resources were devoted to identify and eliminate the causes of early failure.)
Capacitors based on
electric double-layer charge storage
were first patented by
General Electric in 1957
but were never commercialized.
double-layer capacitor designs patented by Standard Oil of Ohio
did lead to
commercial product introduction in 1978
Nippon Electric Corporation
. Their Supercapacitor trademarked product of 5 cm3 size, was rated at 5.5 V and had capacitance values up to 1 F.
The beginning of capacitor technology is attributed to the invention of the Leyden jar in
Ewald Georg von Kleist, and
Pieter van Musschenbroek in 1746.
<<< Discovery of the Leyden jar in Musschenbroek's lab. The
produced in the
rotating glass sphere electrostatic generator
was conducted by the chain through the
suspended bar to the water
in the glass held by assistant Andreas Cuneus. A large charge accumulated in the water and an opposite charge in Cuneus' hand on the glass. When he touched the wire dipping in the water, he received a powerful shock.
or Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC), or Ultracapacitor : Electrochemical Capacitors
Electrostatic storage achieved by separation of charge in a Helmholtz double layer at the interface between the surface of a conductive electrode and an electrolyte. The separation of charge is of the order of a few angstroms, much smaller than in a conventional capacitor.
When an electronic conductor is brought in contact with a solid or liquid ionic conductor (electrolyte), a common boundary (interface) among the two phases appears.
Hermann von Helmholtz
was the first to realize that charged electrodes immersed in electrolytic solutions repel the ions with the same charge while attracting counterions to their surfaces. Two layers of opposite polarity form at the interface between electrode and electrolyte. In
he showed that an electrical double layer (DL) is essentially a molecular dielectric and stores charge electrostatically
Porous Carbon: Very large surface area
(more than 1500 m2 in g)
is the relative static permittivity (dielectric constant)
is the permittivity of free space (8.854x10e-12 F/m)
Electric Double Layer Capacitor
Back up for uninterrupted power supplies (UPS)
Light weight power supplies for small aircraft
Provide short duration power for various vehicle systems such as breaking or steering
Used to absorb power during short periods of generation such as Regenerative Braking
Extend range and battery life in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV)
Schematic construction of a supercapacitor:
1.Terminals, 2.Safety vent, 3.Sealing disc, 4.Aluminum can, 5.Positive pole, 6.Separator, 7.Carbon electrode, 8.Collector, 9.Carbon electrode, 10.Negative pole
Very high Capacitance (Range of 1 F in cm2)
High power density
Fast charge and discharge rate
Extremely low internal resistance or ESR
High efficiency (97-98%)
Over a million charge-discharge cycles
An electrolytic capacitor is a polarized capacitor which its anode electrode is made of a special metal. By anodically oxidation on the anode electrode an insulating oxide layer forms, which acts as the dielectric of the electrolytic capacitor. Also there is an electrolyte between the foil electrodes which serves as second electrode (cathode) of the capacitor.
The surface of anode is rough in order to provide more surface area
The distance between capacitors' electrodes is very small (range of 10 microns)
High capacitance: between 0.1 to 2.7 F
The American journalist, statesmen, and inventor
showed that the water in the jar was not an essential element as had been thought by the inventors. So, he could make
consisting of a
sheet of glass between foil electrodes