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Religion and science, 1450-1750
Transcript of Religion and science, 1450-1750
How and why does Christianity spread in the early modern period?
What is the significance of the Reformation(s)?
How is religion changing and/or staying the same in Africa and Asia?
What was the Scientific Revolution?
How did it impact religion?
Who would like these ideas?
To whom would Luther's ideas appeal?
Splits b/t Roman Catholics and various Protestant groups cause a number of military conflicts in the early modern period
French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
Catholics v. Huguenots
Edict of Nantes (1598)
Revoked in 1685
30 Years War (1618-1648)
Holy Roman Empire + Sweden + France + Lots of others
25-40% of population dies
Peace of Westphalia (1648):
"Cuius regio, eius religio"
Case Study: England
Religion was important in this period, but it often religion was used as a way to justify political changes
i.e. Henry VIII
Divorces first wife in 1533
Declares himself head of the English Church
Religion and Empire
How do the changes in the Christian world impact the "New" World?
Spain: Conquer and Convert
Protestants flee persecution, end in New World
i.e. Puritans in New England
Most successful in Spanish America and Philipines
Christianity in 1500
No real signs of becoming a globalized religion
Mostly limited to Europe
Lost Holy Lands
Lost Constantinople to Ottomans (1453)
Ottomans siege Vienna (1529)
Religion and science, 1450-1750
Review: Roman Catholicism
Role of the pope
Interactions b/t church and state
Use of images in worship
Priest as mediator between person and God
Latin over vernacular
Faith and good works
Begins with Martin Luther in 1517
NOT trying to create a new confession, but to change problems he saw in RC
ML's ideas are NOT new, BUT....
Pope= Leo X
95 Theses--Wants a debate
RC had diverged from true path
Bible as ultimate authority
Questioned role of hierarchy
Reception: Lower classes
There are already social, political, economic issues in Europe--ML provides justification for some to act on these problems (lower classes AND rulers)
German Peasant Revolts (1520s)
In early days, women had more of a role
Salvation is independent
Take away the role of the Virgin Mary
No more convents/monasteries
Good or bad for women?
varieties of protestantism
Luther is the start of something much bigger
Begin to see a variety of Protestant confessions emerge
How does a place become Protestant?
Some more radical than others
Anabaptists (legally) establish a theocracy in the city of Munster in 1534
Call for absolute equality and re-distribution of wealth
Primary leader, John of Leiden, was extremist
City under siege by Catholics (this lasts over a year and causes mass starvation)
In June 1535, besiegers take over the city
Anabaptist leaders caught and executed
Slaves in the Americas
conversion stories: spanish america vs. china
By 1700, vast majority of native populations in Spanish America had converted
Military success as evidence of God's favor
Converts were not "orthodox"
Incorporate local deities and practices
Jesuits try to convert population; mostly unsuccessful
No military defeat ahead of attempt to convert
Some elites convert
Develop "Africanized" versions of Christianity
Euros think African elements are sorcery
Islam spreads less systematically in EM period (not through conquest)
There is some syncretism in Islam
Upsets more orthodox Muslims
i.e. Wahhabism in 18th century
Enforce Sharia law
Resistance and reform becomes synonymous with resisting Western influence
Confucianism & China
Confucianism doesn't spread the way Christianity did in EM world, but it was still dynamic
Ming and Qing embrace Confucianism
Anyone can be virtuous as a result of introspection--> don't need Confucian education [Buddhists make similar claim]
Review: What are two primary religions in India?
In EM period, see efforts to bridge the differences b/t two religious traditions
Birth of "modern" science
Mid-16th Century-18th century
Primarily centered in Europe
Try to explain the world using observation and experiment
Move from faith to reason
Why does this matter?
COMPLETELY changes ideas about relationship of humans to the rest of the universe
Challenges the Church (RC and Prot)
Used to legitimize racial and gender inequality
Science becomes associated with modernity
In Islam, science outside of uni
China did not permit unis (only schools for civil service exam)
Europe had access to all sorts of information
Exchange of letters and ideas
Important People & Breakthroughs
Elliptical orbits of planets
New telescope; moons of Jupiter, new stars
Gravity, mathematical concepts