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Transcript of 1450-1750 Review
1450-1750 Review -"Rebirth" of classical Greek and Roman art, thought, and literature mixed with new ideas
-It saw increased focus on human potential and the outlines for inventions that would eventually become realities. The Renaissance Protestant Reformation -Martin Luther was a Catholic monk concerned with the salvation of his soul; he felt he could not perform enough good works and would always forget a sin at confession.
-Luther did extensive readings of the scripture and developed a series of reforms he thought the church needed. Lutheranism -Influenced by Luther, John Calvin was a French intellectual who broke away from the Catholic Church. He agreed with many of Luther's views, but Calvin believed in predestination and thought the Lord's Supper was purely symbolic.
-Calvinism took root in Switzerland, but it spread across Europe. Geneva would remain the epicenter of the religion.
-John Knox brought Calvinism to Scotland. Calvinism -Group of Protestants who practiced adult baptism, the separation of church and state, the practice of the Lord's Supper as a symbolic event, and pacifism (with some exceptions). They were viewed as radicals by Catholics and other Protestants.
-They would later become the Mennonites and the Amish. Anabaptism -When peasants rose up against the nobility in the Holy Roman Empire, Luther sided with the German princes because he needed their support for Lutheranism. Peasants' Rebellion -In response to the waves of Protestantism, the Catholic Church began "counter reformation designed to wipe out Protestantism and reform the church.
-The Society of Jesus, was found by Ignatius Loyola. The Jesuits were dedicated Catholic missionaries.
-The Council of Trent was called: it reaffirmed Papal authority, but it addressed many of the abuses brought to light by Protestants.
-The Inquisition was established and the Index of Banned Books was created. Catholic Counter Reformation In England, Henry VIII left the Catholic Church because the Pope would not grant him a divorce from his wife Catherine of Aragon. Henry had secretly married Ann Boleyn because he wanted their children (particularly if they were male) to be legitimate.
-Although the Anglican Church was established, it was Protestant in name only. The basic Catholic Church survived; the king merely replaced the Pope. English Reformation -Renaissance began in Italy as the "old wealth' tried to distinguish themselves from the "new wealth" by sponsoring artists
-New ideas such as humanism emerged placing emphasis on the potential for humans to do good and the importance of education Italian Renaissance -The ideas of the Renaissance diffused to Northern Europe as artists and thinkers fled from wars in Italy, as soldiers deserted and took pieces of art with them, and as conquered areas gave art to their conquerors as tribute.
- In the north, a greater emphasis was placed on common life and Christianity. Northern Renaissance Throughout Europe, wars of religion broke out between regions with differing religions. However, sometimes religion was merely cover for ulterior motives such as the Catholic Spain's war with the Netherlands. The Netherlands were actually a great source of wealth for the Spanish Empire, that the crown wanted to keep. Wars of Religion tore parts of Europe apart. Wars of Religion The Age of Exploration established permanent links between the "Old World" and the "New World," permanently altering the course of history. The Age of Exploration Mercantilism was the economic theory that wealth was finite, so each nation must acquire as much as possible and achieve a favorable trade balance. Mercantilism was partially a result of the Little Ice Age shifting the economy away from agriculture. Mercantilism also encouraged nations to establish colonies for resources and a market for goods. Mercantilism Spain and Portugal were early leaders in the race to explore the New World. The Spanish explored the west while the Portuguese explored the east. However, disputes between the two countries led to the intervention of the Pope. The Treaty of Tordesillas divided the New World giving Spain the west (except for Brazil) and Portugal the east. The two countries proceeded to established colonies and trade. Spain and Portugal Although Spain and Portugal were the early leaders of exploration, France, England, and the Netherlands made their presences known. The countries established trading posts and colonies often superseding the Spanish and Portuguese as a regions dominate power. The establishment of colonies and trading posts would change regions' economy. culture, and future. France, England, and the Netherlands The scientific revolution led to an increased emphasis on skepticism and scientific thought. One of the key results was new technology like the magnetic compass which aided explorations. Scientific Revolution The Thirty Years War was arguably the last of the wars of religion and it led to the decline of the Holy Roman Empire. Thirty Years' War Spain lost much of its prestige after the defeat of the Spanish Armada. Its humiliating defeat at the hands of the English increase the power of the English and set the stage for the creation of a global empire that would affect much of world history. Defeat of the Spanish Armada The constant travel and trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americas led the the exchange of food products, animals, diseases, ideas, technology, and other products that would permanently alter the course of history. Columbian Exchange -As a result of the greed, corruption, instability of the Catholic Church, and reform suggestions by humanist like Erasmus led to the Protestant Reformation -Luther abolished all of the sacraments except for the Lord's supper and Baptism, allowed ministers to marry, banned the sale of indulgences and papal authority, and disbanded the church hierarchy.
-Luther believed in salvation on faith alone and that the Bible is the sole source of authority.
-Luther outlined his belief in his Ninety-five Theses. Lutheranism Continued The Peace of Augsburg officially recognized Lutheranism (it was no longer deemed heresy), and it maintained a degree of order within the Holy Roman Empire by allowing the Prince of each state to choose either Catholicism or Lutheranism as his state religion. Peace of Augsburg