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Transcript of Ethnographic Research
RESEARCH Definition and Background ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH According to Creswell (2010),
"An ethnography is a qualitative design in which the researcher describes and interprets the shared and learned values, behaviors, beliefs and language of a culture-sharing group."
"Ethnography is a way of studying a culture-sharing group as well as the final, written product of that research."
Ethnographers study the meaning of the behavior, the language, and the interaction among members of the culture-sharing group.
The culture group could be as small as a few teachers, or they could be as large as teachers in an entire school. Creswell (2010) mentioned that "ethnography is the study of people in their own environment."
There are different methods to be used such as participant observation and face-to-face interviewing.
Ethnographic research focuses on describing the culture of an entire group or a subset of the group. Background Information Types of Ethnographies The Realist Ethnography The Critical Ethnography *A type of ethnographic research in which the authors aim to empower groups marginalized in society and challenge the status quo (University of Strathclyde, 2012).
*A critical ethnographer will study issues of power, empowerment, inequality, inequity, dominance, repression, and victimization (Creswell, 2010).
*Critical ethnographers identify and celebrate their biases in research. Challenges Ethnography Research Example Ethnography Project on Arab Dance Culture: Dabke What is ethnographic research? Presented by:
Hanaa Wahba, Amira Soliman
Alaa Abd-El-Hafez Methods * Performative ethnography
* Feminist ethnography
* Ethnographic novels
* Visual ethnography
* Realist ethnography
* Critical ethnography *Written in the third person point of view.
*Report objectively on the information learned from participants on the site (Creswell, 2010; University of Strathclyde, 2012).
*Objective data is reported in a measured style uncontaminated by personal bias, political goals, and judgment (Creswell, 2010).
*Uses standard categories for cultural description.
*There is a close attention to detail and repeated demonstrations proving the writer's first-hand, authentic experience (Sooudi, 2002).
*The ethnographer has the final word on how the culture is to be interpreted and presented. Ethnography requires an understanding of cultural anthropology.
The time to collect data is extensive.
The narratives are written in literacy storytelling approach which maybe challenging for authors accustomed to traditional approaches to scientific writing.
There is the possibility that the researcher will be unable to complete or be compromised in the study. Wolcott (2008) mentioned that ethnography is not the study of culture but it is the study of a group's social behaviors. Features of Ethnographies Researchers' main concern focus on: Looking for patterns of a culture-sharing group while engaging in fieldwork. Collecting data from the group through interviews, observation, symbols, artifacts and any other diverse sources of data. In the data analysis, the researcher develops an overall cultural perspective. Ethnographers look at and record a people’s way of life as seen by both the people and the anthropologist; they take an emic perspective (folk or inside) and etic scientific perspective (analytic or outside) approach to describe communities and cultures. According to the Ethnographic Research Center, In good ethnographies, "the reader develops "a new and novel, understanding of the group" (Creswell, 2010). Characteristics of Ethnographic Research Procedures for conducting an ethnography
The researcher must be sensitive to the individuals being studied. In addition, the researcher must report his/her impact on the people and places being explored as they conducted the study.