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Azalias Hernandez

on 23 October 2014

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Transcript of Mitochondria

Mitochondria are found in the cytoplasm of the cell.
They are involved in processes such as cellular respiration, cell division, cell growth, and cell death.
Depending on the type of cell, a cell may contain one mitochondrion or thousands.
They divide independently of the cell in which they reside.
Mitochondria possess their own DNA, ribosomes, and have the ability to make their own proteins.
The Powerhouse of The Cell

Electron Scanning Image
Main Function
The most vital purpose of the mitochondrion is to produce energy for the cell in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is a

molecule that stores energy in the cell and is used for many different bodily functions.
The simpler molecules of nutrients are sent to the mitochondria to produce charged molecules. These charged molecules combine with oxygen and make ATP molecules in a process known as
oxidative phosphorylation.

Other Functions
Mitochondria can briefly store calcium, and help in maintaining the homeostasis of calcium.

The outer membrane:
covers the organelle and keeps it contained, like the skin does to the body.
has protein based pores that are big enough to allow the passage of ions and molecules through it.

The inner membrane:
loaded with proteins involved in electron transport and
surrounds the mitochondrial matrix.
freely permeable only to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water.

region between the inner and outer membranes
plays an important role in oxidative phosphorylation- where mitochondria form ATP through use of their structure, enzymes, and oxidation released by nutrients.

Drawn Diagram of Mitochondrion

The ability of the mitochondria to take in calcium so rapidly makes them very good cytosolic buffers. Cytosolic buffers are binding proteins that act as a shield for calcium.
The Matrix

Has enzymes that create citric acid cycle reactions.
Contains dissolved oxygen, water, and carbon dioxide.
Has a very slow diffusion process.
Due to the folds of the cristae, all of the matrix is close to the inner membrane. Therefore matrix components can diffuse to inner membrane complexes and transport proteins within a relatively short time.
by Azalias, Ella, Joshua, and Abigail
B Band

Matrix and Cristae
Cristae are folds of the mitochondria.
It's folding increases the surface area inside the organelle, creating more space for chemical reactions to occur.
Resources !





ATP Synthase is the process of creating ATP using an enzyme complex. During electron transport in the mitochondria, proteins send protons from the matrix out of the inter-membrane space. This creates a concentration of hydrogen ions, or protons, that the complex uses to create ATP.
ATP Synthase
How and when do mitochondria multiply?
They multiply when cells need an energy increase.
High energy cells have more mitochondria than cells with lower energy.
Repeatedly stimulating a muscle cell will spur the production of mitochondria to keep up the energy demand of that cell.
Any Questions?
Thank You
for Letting Us
Teach You About the Organelle Mitochondrion!
A mitochondrion as observed by an electron scanning microscope. The basic structures are still evident in the image.
Drawn Diagram of Mitochondrion
A basic diagram of a mitochondrion.
Shape and Size
Mitochondria are generally oval shaped and can be anywhere between 0.5-10 μm (micrometers).
This image shows the different parts of a mitochondrion.
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