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Transcript of Ancient Egypt
when someone says
" "? To the Egyptians death was just the gateway to everlasting life. Their daily life’s revolved around their gods and their beliefs in the afterlife. Which is why they took precautions when it came to funerary ceremonies and burial practices. My chosen Ancient civilization- EGYPT Burial practices of Ancient Egypt
by: Keilah Pahulu Upper Egypt Lower Egypt What was Egypt? Egypt was rich in mineral deposits e.g. gold, tin, copper and semi precious stones.
The pharaohs used their to build palaces, temples and their tombs..
A few pharaohs made their tombs into pyramids. Which can still be seen today.
It was also a very religious society with multiple carvings and huge temples in honor of their gods. A few historians have written about the burial practices of Ancient Egypt through both primary and secondary sources.
Out of the many I have chosen Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus.
In this section I will explain their works and how they have contributed to history. Ancient
Historians Herodotus- Greek historian Approx.
Died: 425BC Lived in Halcarnassus, supposed, and died in Thurii.
He visited Ancient Egypt in the twenty- seventh dynasty.
Describes the steps of the embalming of the process and how a family mourned for a lost loved one.
Herodotus was known for taking myths and folk tales as fact.
Historians have found errors in his accounts. In his accounts he says, "The third method, used for embalming the bodies …, is simply to wash out the intestines, and keep the body for seventy days in natron."
This shows that his accounts may not be as factual as other peoples. Ancient Burial Practices Diodorus Siculus Approx.
Died: 30BC Diodorus was also a Greek historian who lived in Agira
Like Herodotus, Diodorus wrote about the embalming process for the different classes, but went into more detail.
When he wrote his accounts it had been about 400 years after Herodotus and mummification had started to decline.
Even though it was very efficient.
In his accounts he says, " the whole appearance of the body being unchangeable, and the cast of the features recognizable. Therefore, many of the Egyptians … can behold at a glance those who died before they themselves were born." They've have given insight to people ,like us, who never experienced what Ancient Egyptian life was like.
Filled in the gaps of history from Ancient times in Egypt.
Motivated others to have interest in Egypt and discover more of what it has to offer. How have they contributed to history? What Ancient Historians contributed to our understanding of Ancient Egyptian burial practices?
What were their beliefs in the afterlife?
Would their daily lives affect how they would spend their eternal life?
What are the main Gods involved in the judgement?
How did they achieve eternal life?
Why were funerary practices so crucial for the deceased?
What was the embalming process?
Was it the same for everyone?
How was the ritual carried out?
How did their burial practices reflect the different social classes?
How/did they change over time?e same for everyone? Archaeological
Evidence What is this all about? What were their beliefs in the afterlife? The Egyptian equivalent of heaven was Aaru or the Field of Reeds different things" "3 1st- Judgement in the Hall of Maat Your heart would be tested to see whether or not you lived a good life.
If not then you couldn't live in Aaru.
The heavier the heart the more chance that it would sink Ra's boat. 2nd- Your name must be recorded down somewhere. If your name wasn't uttered then they believed that you would disappear.
Hence why they would record it down somewhere.
Cartouches were used to represent someones name which was usually encased in a symbolic magical rope.
In the Early Kingdom, only pharaoh's had these but it gradually became available to everyone.
If their was an enemy of some sort to Egypt then their name would be scratched out to disgrace them.
Thutmose II showed this when he tried to erase records of his step-mother, Hatshepsut. The cartouche of
King Tutankhamun The temple and obelisks of
Queen Hatshepsut 3rd- Your body had to be preserved The body needed to be mummified in order for the soul to have a resting place.
Whether naturally or embalmed.
Even when the body would deteriorate the shrines, coffins or linen cloths would still remain. Osiris Horus Maat Anubis The ruler of the underworld and god of rebirth and vegetation.
His brother Seth murdered him and which is why he is wrapped up like a mummy. Isis The goddess of protection.
When Seth murdered Osiris she took the form of a bird to find the parts of his body.
Can be found on one of the third shrine doors of King Tutankhamun's as a symbol of protection. The god of war and hunting.
Son of Osiris and Isis.
Eye of Horus, a symbol of protection and wisdom and royalty.
Avenged his father by battling Set, his left eye was injured which is said to be the moon. Thoth The god of wisdom.
He was the fair judge who recorded every decision and made sure it was fair.
Would question the man as to where he stands. The goddess of truth, balance and justice.
Her scales were used to weigh the heart against her feather of truth. Ammut A goddess, also known as the Devourer
She had the head of a crocodile, abdomen of a lion and the hind of a hippo.
She would devourer the unjust heart and the man's soul. This scene was found on the walls in the tomb of Sennedjem in Western Thebes. The god of embalming and guide of the underworld.The jackal headed man.
Jackal were seen roaming around the cemeteries.
The chief embalmer was usually depicted as Anubis. "His heart is righteous …it hath not sinned against any god or any goddess …it is most true and righteous …let him appear in the presence of the god Osiris…”. The final judgment In conclusion... Overall, it can be seen that the way in which a person lived his or her life affected their chances of getting into paradise when they died. This supports my thesis of how their daily lives revolved around their beliefs and gods. Hypothesis:
To the Egyptians death was just the gateway to everlasting life. Their daily life’s revolved around their gods and the afterlife which is why they took precautions when it came to funerary ceremonies, burial practices. The mummy of King Tutankhamun Day
57-58 Drying the body Anointing Day
16-56 Bandaging Day
59-69 The funeral Day 70
The funeral Opening of the mouth ceremony Opening of the mouth ceremony Funerary Practices Funerary Practices Body taken to Ibu, the tent of purification.
Continuously washed in water and natron.
After cleansing body taken to wabet, the place of embalming.
An incision made on lower left side of body to remove organs. Duamutef
- held the stomach Hapy
- held the lungs Qebehsenuef
- held the intestines Imsety
- held the liver Pharaoh's organs placed into golden coffinettes then a stopper was placed on top of them.
The coffinettes were placed into a stone chest.
Then all placed into a canopic shrine. Organs embalmed and wrapped and put into canopic jars.
The brain was taken out with a hook through the nose.
The heart was taken out washed and then placed back into the heart cavity. Hatnofer's heart scarab Purifying Removing the organs For the Kings... The abdomen was completely filled with natron.
Natron covered the bed on which the body lay.
It was tilted so that any fluids could drain out.
The body was taken to per nufer, beautiful house.
The abdomen was filled with clay, sawdust, spices and other materials.
Skin was massaged with oils and perfumes. Body was covered in melted resin.
Linen strips covered in resin were used to bandage the body.
The head was wrapped first then, the each finger and toe, then each arm and leg then, the rest of the body.
Amulets placed between layers on linen.
A shroud covered the whole body as the last layer.
Then a burial mask was placed over the head. "Plummet" "Isis knot" The body was carried to the west bank.
Mu dancers performed ritual dances.
Mourners, if the person was important then they were professional mourners, wept loudly and threw dust on their heads.
All the items to be buried were carried to the tomb. Either performed by the son of the deceased or the successor.
Touched the mouth, ears and eyes with an Adze.
The priest read out spells that would help the soul in the afterlife.
While this was happening the tomb was being filled with the goods. Adze The Opening of
the mouth ceremony- King Tutankhamun Female mourners
Tomb of Rameses In conclusion... It can be seen that every detail associated with preparing the body for the afterlife was extremely important. This supports my hypothesis in saying that the Ancient Egyptians took precautions when they were preparing for the afterlife and that everything revolved around their beliefs.
To the Egyptians death was just the gateway to everlasting life. Their daily life’s revolved around their gods and their beliefs in afterlife which is why they took precautions when it came to funerary and burial practices. Hypothesis- Early Dynastic Period- Lower Class People were buried in desert pits.
Buried with jars of food, drink and stone slabs with spells.
The dry environment preserved the body naturally. The Old Kingdom- Middle Class Royalty and high officials were buried in Mastabas.
The bodies weren't as preserved naturally like the ones in the desert pit.
Priests had to develop new methods.
As well as mummification, coffins were incorporated. Royals began to be buried in Step Pyramids then true pyramids were built.
The high officials were stilled buried in mastabas but were buried closer to their king.
The officials ere buried with food, drink, jewelry and magical objects. The New Kingdom- Upper Class The Valley of the Kings built at the beginning of the New Kingdom.
This was more economically efficient.
Pharaoh's were buried with food, drink, jewelry, furniture, personal items, Shabti figures, model boats and lots of other things. Death mask of King Tutankhmaun Shabti model found
in King Tut's tomb. One of the model boats
found in King Tut's Tomb. In conclusion... Jewelry found in King Tut's tomb. Valley of the kings Outermost shrine of King Tutankhamun From the information given it can be said that whether or not you were a farmer, scribe, vizier or the pharaoh himself, precautions were taken to make sure that the body was preserved and ready for the afterlife. This therefore supports my hypothesis were it says that the Egyptians took precautions when it came to preparing for the afterlife. Hypothesis To the Egyptians death was just the gateway to everlasting life. Their daily life’s revolved around their gods and the afterlife which is why they took precautions when it came to funerary ceremonies, burial practices. Burial Practices Overall it can be seen that the Ancient Egyptians were a leading civilization in Ancient times with all their power and wealth. With death being the gateway to a happier life, the Egyptians daily lives were centered on their gods and the afterlife and they made sure to achieve it with specific methods for funerary practices and burial practices. Through the analysing and detailed descriptions of the Egyptians beliefs in the afterlife, burial and funerary practices it can be concluded that the Egyptians really did take the afterlife seriously which can be throughout everything that they do from birth until their death. Fragment from the
book of the dead.