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Calques and Borrowings
Transcript of Calques and Borrowings
Professor Andre Dumoulin
Reasons for language borrowings
One language may possess words for which there are no equivalents in the other language. There may be words for objects, social, political, and cultural institutions and events or abstract concepts which are not found in the culture of the other language.
English borrowings are entering languages everywhere, and in more domains than just science and technology.
Loanwords from a dominant field or activity
Loanwords - Major periods of Borrowing in the History of English
Germanic period: butter (butere), cheese (ceas), street (straet).
Middle English Period: Scandinavian: anger, cake, egg, husband, root, take, they, ugly, window.
French (law and gov.): attorney, country, court, crime, evidence, government, jail, jury, noble... Church: abbot, prayer, priest, saint. Nobility: baron, count, duke, marquis, prince, noble, royal. Military: army, battle, captain, defense, enemy, navy, soldier. Cooking: beef, broil, butcher, pork, poultry, roast, stew, veal.
Early Modern English Period: Latin: abdomen, anatomy, expensive, habitual, insane, meditate, physician.
Modern English: French: ballet, cabernet, champagne, chic,
cognac, quiche, rouge, salon, roulet, cavalry.
Loanwords from Spanish
Armada, adobe, alligator, alpaca, armadillo, barricade, bravado, cannibal, canyon, coyote, desperado, embargo, enchilada, guitar, marijuana, mesa, mosquito, mustang, ranch, taco, tornado, tortilla, vigilante, salsa.
Sports: básket (basketball), béisbol (baseball).
People: líder (leader), rockero (rocker).
Music: blues, heavy, house, jazz, pop, punk.
Technology: email, click, pc, gps, chat, cd, dvd, webcam.
Places: club, pub, parking.
Miscellaneous: piercing, zapping, bowl, fashion, bypass.
Loan words or Borrowings are
terms taken directly from another language
Concerning borrowing refers to a case where a word or an expression is taken from SL and used in the TL, but in a "naturalized" form, it is made to conform to the rules of grammar or pronunciation of the TL.
A calque or loan translation is a
phrase borrowed from another language and translated literally word-for-word.
Calque may introduce a structure that is stranger from the TL.
Calque expressions consist of imitating the manner of expression of the ST and TT.
Each individual part of the word (prefix, root and suffix) is translated into its literal equivalent in another language.
Arts: Most of the technical vocabulary referring to
concerto, allegro, tempo, aria, opera, soprano
) is borrowed from
and likewise in
Mass and Communion
Science: Uses a large vocabulary of
), as a result of medieval advances in medical science being conducted in Latin.
Calque: is an expression borrowed by way of literal translation from one language to another.
blue-blood: noble birth - from Spanish sangre azul.
moment of truth: momento de la verdad
frogman: hombre rana
cease-fire: alto al fuego
honeymoon: luna de miel
wild west: salvaje oeste
hard disk: disco duro