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English: A language and its future
Transcript of English: A language and its future
A universal standard would require a governing body of the language to decide what is Standard and what is not Yes It is the "least common denominator" among all the Englishes in the world is designed to help learners speak English in 1500 words with a simplifed grammar. BUT- it has a limited focus on business and tourism, ignores cultures other than British or American, and has been critized as being too simplified. is now recognized to be THE global lingua franca. (McArthur 1) Basic Global English (BGE) is available on the internet and presented in the learner's native tongue with vocabulary based on corpus data. BUT - it is untested, not available for self-study, and may require translation Are there benefits aside from communication? Contribution of ideas mutual intelligibility, mutual goals Tolerance less individualism empathy for other's opinions A global lingua franca may have limited use, but it would serve as a common ground: "No one global standard will fit all users and communities, but all competent users will have enough in common to be able to negotiate norms and interim norms in order to communicate successfully." (Nunn 2) "A particular dialect of English, being the only non-localized dialect, of global currency without sigificant variation, universally accepted as the appropriate educational target in teaching English; which may be spoken with an unrestricted choice of accent."
"Might be termed as the unmarked variety; it is not unusual or different in any way and is typically associated with written English."
(both from McKay 51) Fact: “The English language teaching sector directly earns nearly 1.3 billion (British Pounds) for the UK.” (According to Chair of the British Council, see Graddol 6) British English and American English models are considered superior to any other models of English... But American English is considered the most influential due to political power, diffusion of American culture and media, technological advance and the rapid development of communications technology. (Kirkpatrick 55) But even "American" or "British" English have their own varieties... Is this linguistic prejudice? “The introductory textbooks that the ministry of education has approved are all based on American English…”
Aya Matsuda, TESOL Quarterly
Teaching materials are dominated by native speaker models. Other speakers, who speak with accents similar to their own, no matter whether these are urban or rural speakers, are considered warmer and more honest. (Kirkpatrick PP) “Governor Clinton, you attended Oxford University in England and Yale Law School in the Ivy League, two of the finest institutions of learning in the world. So how come you still talk like a hillbilly?” (Kirkpatrick 65) It is language-based discrimination based on myths including misunderstandings about grammar and usage rules, misinformed beliefs about language varieties as “random” rather than rule governed, and misconceptions about how to judge the relative value or quality of specific language varieties.
(Zuidema, L.A. (2005, May) Defined as: Consequences of: Judgments about language provoke judgments about people overall. People may assume that a person is less intelligent because they do not speak “Standard English.” Can lead to discriminatory practices such as this advertisement seeking a teacher of English... "An international language is one that is no longer linked to a single cultur or nation but serves both global and local needs as a language of communication." (McKay 24) English has global reach, but which model or variety of English is appropriate?
Should teachers abandon a "native-speaker" model?
Should the alternatives of Globish or Basic Global English become the lingua franca?
What will the implications be for you as a TESOL professional?
One thing is certain: English continues to add speakers and each speaker brings his or her culture to influence the language. Expanding Circle China Sri Lankan English Japan English as a Native Language (ENL) English as a Second Language (ESL) English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Germany Phillipines Graddol, David. "English Next 2006- English Language Research - British Council." British Council. Web. 23 Jan. 2011. <http://www.britishcouncil.org/learning-research-englishnext.htm>
Grzega, Joachim. "Globish and Basic Global English (BGE): Two Alternatives for a Rapid Acquisition of Communicative Competance in a Globalized World?" Journal for EuroLinguistiX (2006): 1-13. Print.
Kirkpatrick, Andy. "Linguistic Prejudice" Powerpoint Presentation. Lia Conferences. Web. 03 Apr. 2011.
Kirkpatrick, Andy. World Englishes: Implications for INternational Communications and English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Matsuda, Aya. "Web Link Incorporating World Englishes in Teaching English as an International Language." TESOL Quarterly Winter 74.4 (2003): 719-29. Print.
McArthur, Tom. "World English and World Englishes: Trends, Tensions, Varieties, and Standards." Language Teaching 34 (2001): 1-20. Print.
McKay, Sandra Lee. Teaching English as an International Language: Rethinking Goals and Approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Nunn, Roger. "Defining International Communicative Competence." Iatefl Voices 199 (2007): 12-13. Print.
Zuidema, Leah A. "Myth Education: Rationale and Strategies for Teaching Against Linguistic Prejudice." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 48.8 (2005): 666-75. Print.