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AP UNIT 3: China, Mongols, and Asia
Transcript of AP UNIT 3: China, Mongols, and Asia
What happened after the fall of the Han in the
"Era of Division": (400 Years)
China fragmented into regional kingdoms fighting constantly with one another.
960 AD: Three major states competed to replace the Tang:
1. Liao Empire--pastoral nomads related to Mongols from the Northeast.
2. Xi Xia (Tanggut) Empire--Minyak people in Western China.
3. Song Empire--Military Commander Taizu, reunited most of China under central imperial control.
Men & Women's Roles
Song Era: Re-emphasized Confucian male dominant society--huge impact on family life and women's status.
Neo-Confucianists viewed women with contempt and they sought to oppress powerful women. They attacked Buddhists for promoting women in scholasticism and the monastic life.
**They claimed this undermined the institution of marriage and also the raising of family.
* Created laws that favored men in most things; excluded women from most things--especially education.
Footbinding was a way to subordinate women. It came about n the late Song era. It assured that they could not venture far from home and that their lives would be managed by their husbands or other male guardians.
Korea, Vietnam, Japan
Distinct societies with their own identities and cultural traditions.
*Very influenced by China politically, economically, and culturally.
*Also interacted with India, and Buddhism from India.
589 AD--Chinese nobleman Wendi, reunites China with a marriage alliance from the north and gaining control of the nomad military commanders. He then reunified China with the defeat of the Chen in the south
**The upheaval and turmoil DID NOT end with Wendi's victories over the nomadic leaders.
Wendi was murdered by his son, Yangdi, who was assassinated in 618. One of Yandi's officials, LI YUAN (Duke of Tang), became the first Tang emperor.
AP World: China, Mongols, and Asia
UNIT 3--Chapters 8 and 9
1. Chinese bureaucracy collapsed.
2. Position of the scholar-gentry declined sharply.
3. Non-Chinese nomadic warlords ruled much of China.
4. Buddhism gained followers and popularity.
5. Great wall was poorly defended.
6. Trade and city life declined.
Similarities between the "Warring States" period between the Zhou And Quin and the
"Era of Division" between the Han and Sui:
1. Just as Shi Huangdi emerged to unite China at the end of the "Warring States,"
a Chinese noble family rose to unite China at the end of the 6th century.
(Shi Huangdi & Wendi)
2. Just as the Quin dynasty paved the way for the Han Dynasty,
the Sui Dynasty paved the way for the Tang.
TANG DYNASTY: Cosmopolitan Dynasty
Tang Emperors descended from Turks.
*Upheld Confucianism, but also included Buddhism and strong military. Buddhism would be challenged by Emperor Wuzong (847) who destroyed monastaries and shrines and Buddhism would never again have political influence like before.
*Established a capital at the old Chang'an capital of the Quin (became one of the largest cities in the world).
*Grand Canal was completed (technological and economic accomplishment)
*Expanded China's borders and built the foundation for a great dynasty.
*Pacified namadic people.
*Took the title of "Heavenly Khan"
*Built an elaborate bureaucracy (like the Han)
*Valued scholar-gentry again which impacted the social class system
*Established HEGEMONY (control) over east Asia by way of Tributary (payment by subjects)
*First time empire is called "Middle Kingdom"
*Established "Equal Field System" which restricted the nobles from inheriting land and improved life of peasants. (After a farmer died, the land went to the government who allotted the land.)
*Massive Buddha sculptures were carved
*Major accomplishments in literature, especially poetry. Poets Li Bo and Du Fu
Fall of Tang: Turkish "Uighurs" sacked the main cities of China and the empire lost control ending in 907.
Song Empire : Economic Revolution
Constant pressure remained even though the Song unified China.
Invasion of Jurchins (Northern people who claimed their own empire --the Jin)
caused two eras of Song Empire.
1. Northern Song: (960-1127)
2. Southern Song: (1127-1279)
Song Empire was different from Tang in that
1. They restricted military and put the scholar-gentry in charge
2. Broadened civil service exams: Three levels: 1. District, 2. Provincial,3. Imperial
3. Political power flowed to the scholars from nobles.
Revolutionary economic changes in Industry, Agriculture, and Commerce.
INDUSTRY: paper making, book production, tea, salt, ceramics, iron, coal, gunpowder, printing
AGRICULTURE: champa rice (new varieties of rice), improved farm tools, water control, use of fertilizers
COMMERCE: trade on the Yellow River became a center for textiles, many trading cities like Kaifeng, Hangzhou, drug/chemical shops, building materials, restaurants/hotels, paper money used, compass, silks copper coins ceramics trade
Song Empire: Cultural Changes
Confucianism vs. Buddhism in this era.
Song emperors supported Confucianism.
Buddhism was not persecuted any more, but
the support of it caused the Song to adapt
NEO-CONFUCIANISM (new version of the older ideology. Emphasized interpretations of Mencius (370BC) and Zhu Xi (who wrote commentaries on Confucian works in four books.
1. Continued to emphasize yin and yang
2. Emphasied "li" and "qi" which is the underlying pattern of reality vs. the material form of reality. (Borrowing from Buddhist idea of soul vs. cosmos.
3. Neo-Confucianism, however, emphasized social life where Buddhism did not.
4. Re-enforced class, age, gender distinctions.
“Land Equalization” System –> land redistribution
Established army of professional soldiers
People were overworked and overtaxed!
Sui Dynasty, 581-618 C.E.
The Grand Canal
High point of Chinese history
Imperial examination system perfected
Liberal attitude towards all religions
Spread of Buddhism in China
Golden Age of foreign relations with other countries
Japan, Korea, Persia
Tang Dynasty, 618-907 C.E.
Tang Gov’t. Organization
Printing --> moveable print
More cosmopolitan culture
Reestablished safety of Silk Road
Tea came into China from Southeast Asia
Size 5 ½ shoe on the right
Broken toes by 3 years of age.
Foot-Binding in Tang China
Mothers bound their daughters’ feet.
For upper-class girls, it became new custom
Results of Foot-Binding
Causes of decline:
2. Economic exploitation
Made it possible for northern invaders to defeat them
Next 50 years saw fragmentation of China
End of Tang Dynasty
*Creation of urban, merchant middle class
*Neo-Confucianists wanted to purify Confucianism
*Increased emphasis on education & cheaper availability of printed books
*Magnetic compass made China great sea power!
Song [Sung] Dynasty, 960-1279 C.E.
"Women are to be led and to follow others.“
"A woman ruler is like a hen crowing.“
"Woman's greatest duty is to produce a son."
"We should not be too familiar with the lower orders or with women."
"The woman with no talent is the one who has merit.“
"Those who cannot be taught, cannot be instructed. These are women and eunuchs."
"A husband can marry twice, but his wife must never remarry.“
"Man is honored for strength; a woman is beautiful on account of her gentleness."
"Disorder is not sent down by Heaven, it is produced by women."
Song Began Rice Cultivation
Korea is a peninsula and the northern part of that was conquered by Han China in 108 BC.
The southern part untied several tribes and fed the state of Koguyo; along with two other states of Paekche and Silla they joined to form the "Three Kingdoms."
Buddhism was the chief religion, but Confucianism became a strong influence.
Silla ruled from 668 into the 9th century and then was replaced by the Koryo Dynasty which ruled until 1892.
During this time the Silla king had recognized the Tang emperor as overlord. This allowed for Korean trade with China.
Chinese vs. Korean Societies:
1. Korea never established a civil examination system like China. Political control remained in the hands of the royal family and nobility.
2. No strong conflicts were between Confucianism and Buddhism like in China during the Tang.
3. Small aristocratic elite controlled Korea and most of the bureaucracy and social life and economic life was controlled by them.
4. No distinct social class developed for merchants or traders.
5. Koreans often rivaled the Chinese in art and technology.
(celadon glazed items, woodblock prints, some scholars believe that the Koreans invented moveable type.
Previously occupied by Han Chinese, with fierce resistance by the Viet people.
**Adopted Chinese culture and technology
**Took on Chinese agriculture and irrigation methods
**Studied Confucian texts
**Traded merchandise with China
Won independence when the Tang Empire fell.
Chinese traditions still impacted Vietnam and and they still modeled Chinese administrative system and adopted Buddhism.
**Developed in relative isolation without much mainland contact.
**Mountain terrain separated clans and they developed into small states.
**Language developed that was unrelated to Chinese.
**Religion of Shintoism (animistic religion emphasizing nature or spirits (kami) that inhabit objects) was isolated as well.
**Tang never conquered Japan, but traded with them.
**Buddhism spread to Japan
**Modeled their imperial court after the Tang Court. (Yamato Clan)
FUJIWARA RULE--Mid-8th Century--family who controlled power and protected the emperor; believed to have ruled since the beginning of Japan's history.
**Confucianism and Buddhism werer established
**Chinese building techniques were mastered
**Capital at Nara and Kyoto--legally centralized government lasted here until 1185.
DIFFERENCE: The Japanese ruling dynasty never changed--probably because it never had true political power.
HEIAN ERA--794-1185--Period of Confucian growth and learning, painting and art (still Fujiwara family behind the throne.
**Tale of Genji--book by Marasaki Shikibu (woman). First to be written in Japanese and described the refined court of the Fujiwara. Notable because the Fujiwara elites did not encourage education for women.
**Local government and tax collection was left to the warriors. Nobility lost control of the government and the warriors fought for the power to rule Japan.
Taira vs. Minamoto warrior families--struggled for years until Minamoto won the victory in 1185.
--Minamoto maintained a separate court from the emperor and installed a SHOGUN--military governor of the country who ruled in the place of the emperor near modern Tokyo in a place called Kamakura.
--established the BAKUFU (tent) or military government and a feudal political order developed.
Feudalim in Japan was similar and different than the feudal life in Europe.
**Regional lords wielded power and authority in areas where they controlled land and economic affairs.
**Samurai--devoted professional warriors lived by the "Bushido code" or way of the warrior with absolute loyalty to the lord.
If the samurai failed the lord he would commit "seppuku" or "hari-kiri" the belly slicing that would kill with disembowelment.
This feudal system had more in common with Europe than China:
1. Loyalty ties were emphasized
2. Peasants provided agriculture labor
3. Rituals to demonstrate relationships among the elite.
4. Both Japanese and European political systems were less sophistocated than the empires like the Tang.
1. "western" feudalism placed emphasis on written contracts that were negotiated and signed. The Japanese feudalism relied on group and individual loyalty by honor, not written contract.
(Seen today with Japan still aware of "honor codes")
2. Samurai was granted land rights but not given ownership; European knights received land ownership for services. Knights often became lords themselves, where the distinction between samurai and lord remained clear.
MONGOL RISE AND FALL
Great Impact on civilizations of the day and had a major role in the decline of the Roman, Han, and Gupta Empires.
Great Mongol Empire: formed in the steppes of central Asia--largest land-based empire of all time.
Started with a small group of steppe nomads.
**ponies, bows and arrows, portable houses called yurts, organized in to kinship tribes.
Most famous warrior in history: Temujin or Genghis Khan (Chinggis Khan)
Genghis Khan: "Universal ruler"
Genghis Khan's Organization
1. Organized army into units of 100, 1,000, and 10,000 mounted warriors.
(served to break up old alliances and leave loyalty to him)
2. Light infantry and heavy cavalry divisions
3. Promotion based on merit
4. Siege warfare: catapult, giant mounted crossbows, gunpowder, Mongol bow
Conquered the Jin capital (Beijing) (1215),
Conquered Xi Xia (Tanggut Empire capital)
Died in 1227
Division of Genghis Khan's Empire at his death
1. Khanate of the Great Khan--old Mongolian Capital and then moved to the Jin capital at Beijing. Chinese called it the Yuan Empire of China. First held by Ogodei and then Kubilai Khan. (grandson)
2. Khanate of Jagadai--This is the khanate in central Asia that
was ruled by descendants of Genghis' son Jagadai. Leader was Tamerlane or (Timur) who was a Turkish in-law of Genghis.
3. Khanate of the Golden Horde--Southern Russia and the capital at Sarai on the Volga River, Muslim Turkish populations. Leader was Batu, Genghis' grandson.
4. Il-Khan--Hulegu (grandson) established this in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Mesopotamia, and Iran. Captured Baghdad. Islamic heartland rule.
Why did the Mongol Empire fragment?
1. Split along ethnic lines--feuds between rulers
2. Distance between capitols and borders made communication difficult.
3. Mongols adopted the cultures of the conquered people and so they diffused into that culture.
1. Disruption of trade
2. Encouragement of trade
3. Pax Mongolica--Mongol Peace estabished
4. Communication opened between Asia and Europe (after the empire broke up the Silk Route would disappear forever)
5. Creation of one of the worst pandemics in history--"Black Death"
Bubonic Plague/Pneumonic Plague spread along trade routes. Spread out of Asia to the Black Sea and then to Italy and into Europe.
(Brought more devastation than the attacks themselves)
Mongol Middle East
Yuan Dynasty--Kubilai Khan
Il-Khan--declared themselves protectors and advocates of Islam; the law codes were altered to include the principles of Islam. "Golden Age of Islam" was made by scholars, historians, astronomers, and mathematicians.
Tamerlane came from the Khanate of Jagadai to attack the area between north India and Moscow. Destroyed everything on his war path even though he was Muslim.
Osman, settled in Anatolia and was the founder of the Ottoman Turks--expanded to the Byzantine Empire and established Istanbul.
Captured Kiev and Mongols domiated Russia and the Russian princes served as vassals to the khan of the Golden Horde. Encouraged serfdom as the peasants ned protection from the Mongols.
**Mongols cemented Russia's isolation from western Europe (Christian lands)
**Also, conversely, protected Russia's princes from being controlled by the crusading knights--so they were left to rule their kingdoms.
Mongols rose to power during southern Song. Song emperors paid tribute to the Jin Empire. Mongols captured the capital and renamed it Khanbalik.
Kubilai Khan was the fabled leader and he proclaimed himself Chinese Emperor and founded the Yuan Dynasty, though he failed to capture Japan or Vietnam.
1. Included many more ethnicities other than Han Chinese. Mongols, Jurchens, Tanggut, Tibetans included.
2. Organized government with Mongols a the top officials and that replaced the authority of Confucian scholars; dismantled the old Confucian examination system.
3. Scholar-gentry retained positions with the government but were reduced to middle-level administrators with low statuses.
4. Favored merchants (Looked down upon by Confucians)
5. Elevated the status of physicians (Confucians looked at them as just technicians)
6. Laws were passed to keep Mongol and Chinese identities separate. Not allowed to intermarry or learn each other's scripts.
7. Mongols retained their religious beliefs
**Despite this, Kubilai Khan was fascinated by Chinese civilizations and he used the Chinese rituals, music, calendar, and make sacrifices to his ancestors.
**The "Forbidden City" the complex at Khanbalik was expanded. He welcomed Marco Polo.
Temujin --> Chenghis Khan [“Universal Ruler”]
**United the Mongols in 1162
**Died in 1227
**From the steppes of Asia.
**Built the World’s Largest land Empire
**Created his new capital at Karakorum
The Rise of the Mongols
Xinjiang Region – Typical Uygher [Mongol] “Yurt”
Wagon-pulled “gers” made Moving Easier
Trade Routes Under the Mongols
A Venetian merchant who
traveled through Yuan China:
“Black Stones” [coal]
People traveled as well as goods
Marco Polo’s Travels
Ride standing up because of stirrups
Could attack with bow and arrow from afar
Tied sacks to saddles to add numbers
The Advantages of the Bow and the Horse
After the decline of Kubilai Khan's descendants, China was in chaos.
A poor peasant named Ju Yuanzhang founded the MING DYNASTY (means "brilliant") and it ruled for the next three centuries.
Ju Yuanzhang was renamed HONGWU, first Ming Emperor who set out to remove all Mongol influences or traces of the Mongol rule.
*Established government based on Chinese traditional models
*Revived Confucian education and civil service
*Restaffed the Chinese bureaucracy
*Centralized authority in the new capital of Nanjing
*Suspicious of non-Chinese
*Relied on emissaries called "mandarins"
*Relied on eunuchs for governmental services
Belief that China was weakened by contact with other people of the world so they were very cautious with outside trade; afraid to lose China to non-Chinese again.
**Conflict of opening doors to others or keeping them tightly shut.