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Party Eras in American History
Transcript of Party Eras in American History
1796-1824: The First Party System
Federalists America's first political party
1800: signaled an end to the party after John Adams lost his election
Their goal was to destroy each other rather than defeat each other
The succeeding party to the Federalists, were the Democratic-Republicans, led by Thomas Jefferson
Coalition: Agrarian interests, popular to the rural south.
The Jeffersonians were torn apart by factionalism, tried to be all things to all people
1828-1856: Jackson and the Democrats vs. the Whigs
The Democratic Party
Founded by Andrew Jackson this new coalition included the westerners, southerners, immigrants and settled Americans
Goal of his supporters - broaden political opportunity by eliminating elitism
Martin Van Buren
Supported by Northern industrialists and southern planters, they were united through their opposition of the Democrats more than what they agreed on
1860-1928: The Two Republican Eras
Republicans gain enough support to nominate and elect Lincoln, which ignited the Civil War, a political earthquake, that realigned the parties. Reps. remained in control for 60 more years.
A second Republican era, there coalition consisted of: gold standard, industrialization, banks, high tariffs, and industrial working classes, and against the silverites.
Political scientists classify this as a realigning election because of the shift in the party's coalitions.
The Republicans would remain in power for 30 years until another political earthquake.
"A Generation of Change; Realignment in the South"
Nixon built a coalition specifically aimed towards the South, his ideas included: states' rights, law and order, and a strong military posture.
Divided Party Government: one party runs the White House and the opposing party runs Congress
Political scientists have fashioned a new term party dealignment, where people are pulling away from both parties.
1932-1964: The New Deal Coalition
A few key ideas
Party eras - a period of time where one party is the majority for a long period of time.
Critical Election - political earthquake that most of the time shifts the balance from one party to the other. Party realignment.
Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal
The New Deal Coalition:
Urban Dwellers: Big cities go from Rep to Dem
Labor Unions: supportive of labor unions
Catholics and Jews: strongly Dem
The poor: overwhelmingly in favor of Dem
Southerners: Dem loyalists (MI voter 90% Dem in all four of FDR elections)
African Americans: FDR's plans attracted the majority of the African Americans.
Johnson's Vietnam War policies tore the Dem Party apart in '68 opening the door for Nixion.