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Beasley IR1006 Comparative Lecture

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Ryan Beasley

on 25 February 2016

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Transcript of Beasley IR1006 Comparative Lecture

Questions?
Classifying the State (examples)
What should we compare?
'Comparative'
Learning Objectives
In Review
How to Study This?
What do YOU Think?
Differences in Democracies
Dyadic Peace
(A Contested Assertion)
Democratic Peace Theory
(Kant)
Domestic Politics and Foreign Policy/Security?
Your Research Questions?
Review
Preview
Comparative Politics and International Security
But...the more you get of one, the less you get of the other two!
Wanting it All!
Challenges to Comparative Method
How To Compare
Are People more satisfied in Democracies than Authoritarian systems?
Hypotheses? (Examples)
Comparative Politics and the State
Comparative Politics
Comparative Method
Ryan K Beasley
Comparative Method
Comparative Politics
Comparative Foreign Policy

Liberalism & Domestic Politics
What is the Comparative Method?
What does Comparative Politics Study?
Can we Study Foreign Policy Systematically?
Domestic Politics and International Relations
Three Different Uses of the Term:
1) Systematic Comparison ('comparative method')
2) Studying Countries ('comparative politics')
3) A sub-field of International Relations
('comparative foreign policy')
Desire to Generalise
Develop Theories
Test Hypotheses
Compare to find the Unique,
or the Common: You Might...
Countries?
Types of Governments?
Cultures?
Leaders?
Policies?
This is where 'Comparative Politics' comes in
The Systematic Study of Political Systems
How do Different Political Systems Work?
e.g. how does voting work in Germany?
How Does one Thing Affect other Things?
e.g. Media influence revolutions in the Middle East?
Why are Systems Different from One Another?
e.g. Why is Wealth Distributed More Equally in Some Countries than in Other Countries?
The Importance of the State
Government; Territory; Population
Approaches to the State:
Pluralist -- multiple groups disperse power
Elitist -- minority protects its interests
Marxist -- economic interests of ruling class
Feminist -- keep men in power
Etc.
Authoritarian -- Democratic
Participation -- Exclusion
Coercion -- Persuasion
Weak -- Strong
All States Perform Similar Functions
recruiting people into politics
communicating with the people
socialising people into the rules
But each state does it somewhat differently
Qualitative vs Quantitative
Quantitative
: Using numerical information and statistics to evaluate claims/hypotheses
Qualitative
: Using descriptions or observations to explore characteristics and relationships
Not really Either/Or: Depends on the Question
Foreign Policy Involves Complex Problems
Humans are Adaptive, Dynamic, and deal with 'Meaning' as much as with 'Physical Reality'
Language; Culture; Access Issues
Ethical Issues
Researcher Biases
Do You Think Domestic Politics Matters in Foreign Policy?
Do IR Theories Allow for Domestic Politics to Matter?
Some More Systemic or Structural (Neo-Realism)
Some Allow for Limited Influence (e.g. Liberalism)
Some Focus Mostly on Domestic Factors (e.g. Foreign Policy Analysis)
Bring in a Research Question about Domestic Politics and FP (to share!)
Domestic Sources of International Conflict
Democratic Peace
Comparative Foreign Policy Studies
Types of Democracies and Foreign Policy
Comparative Method, Politics, and Foreign Policy
Comparative Politics, and the State
Comparative Method(s)
Domestic Politics, Foreign Policy, and IR Theory
Multiple Actors with Multiple Interests Constrain States or Leaders
Democratic Institutions Provide Domestic Actors Avenues of Influence
Why Would Democracies be More Peaceful?
Leaders Constrained by their Publics
More Important in Democracy than in Non-Democracy?
Democracies Have Norms of Peaceful Resolution of Conflicts
So...Are Democracies more Peaceful?
No!
Democracies Rarely Fight
Each Other
Why?
Peaceful Norms only Extend to Other Democracies (?)
Combined Institutional Constraints Give Peace a Chance?
Notice Both Still Assume Peace-Loving Publics
But, as we saw, publics don't always oppose war
See How this is 'Comparative Method'?
See How This Uses 'Comparative Politics'?
See How This Compares Foreign Policy?
But FP is not just 'War'
And Not All Democracies are the Same
How might democracies differ?
(Speak Up!)
Presidential vs Parliamentary!
Realism (not Morgenthau 'Realism'; Rather 'it really happens this way in the real world')
Precision (isolating the causal relationship you are interested in)
Generalizability (what you see in one place applies to others)
Comparative Method
How Might We Explore Your Hypotheses?
This is Fairly 'Comparative Politics'
But this Module is 'Foreign Policy and International Security'
Others in FP?
(speak up)
Do Some Case Studies? Sure!
Compare Those 'With' to Those 'Without'
-Different values, characteristics, etc.
Which Ones Might You Compare?
-Those you are interested in? Sure!
-Those that are pretty similar; but a little different? Sure! (Lijphart, 1971)
Multi-Methods for Social Enquiry
People
Legislature
Executive
People
Legislature
Executive
Coalitions!
Do Coalitions Differ in Foreign Policy from Single Party Governments?
Think About Domestic Publics
Think About the Process of Making Foreign Policy
Do They Differ in their Influence?
Parties; Constituents; Shared Power
Gathered Lots of Information about FP
Parliamentary Democracies 1966 to 1989
COMPARED Single Parties to Coalitions
Statistics (Kaarbo & Beasley. 2008; Beasley & Kaarbo, 2014)

Found: Coalitions more Extreme
COMPARED Coalitions to Each Other!
Found: Weak Coalitions more Extreme; Weak Single Parties less Extreme
But clearly Domestic Politics and Foreign Policy is a Bag full of Fun!
Why?
Comparative: Method; Politics; Foreign Policy
Comparative Method: Shows Unique, and Common
Comparative Politics: How Countries Work
IR Theories: Vary in Role of Domestic Politics
Big Patterns (Dyadic Peace) May be Influenced by Domestic Factors
e.g. Single Parties vs Coalitions, etc.
Seek to Describe in Detail
Case Studies; Statistically
Case Studies and Statistics
Flaws, Problems, Limitations?
What might be Wrong with Our Studies?
What Are the Limitations?
Do we Have to Be So 'Scientific'?
No!
What were some of your ideas?
And (ahem) sometimes Publics Don't Know Much...
Kull, Ramsay, & Lewis (2003/2004) "Misperceptions, the Media, and the Iraq War"
So Maybe They Don't Constrain Leaders
...or they 'Know' the
Wrong Things!
The U.S. Public & Iraq
Measured their Behaviour -- News Articles
Realism
Precision
Generalisability
Brinberg & McGrath
Control; Isolating Causality
Applies Across Population(s)
As it Happens in Context
Multi-Methods for Social Enquiry
How Did We Do For Multi-Methods?
Case Studies -- More Realism
Statistics Data -- More Generalisable
...But we don't know for sure what causes what (Precision)
Ideas?
(Speak Up!)
A detailed case study
How one event is like many others
Why/How does it work this way?
I suspect we will see X
Egypt and Tunisia
Authoritarian and Democratic
Blair vs Cameron
Traditional vs Modern
Comparative
Sometimes we want to do other things than classifying, describing, & evaluating
We want to see how things 'go together', interact, or influence one another
Classification is important
Inspires Debate
[long pause]
Some argue that it is a mistake to try to study Foreign Policy systematically
Unique, Complex, Distant
But I Disagree!
...and so do most Foreign Policy Analysis scholars
A relative newcomer to politics
Your Ideas?
(what kinds of states are there?)
Political Theorists
Often interested in Power & Political Systems
What is the relationship of people to one another within a political system?
Who has power over whom, and how do they exert it?
Marxist Theory -- The owners of capital have power over the workers
Democratic Theory -- The people have power over themselves
How did this come about?
In what ways is this possible?
Is this a good form of government?
Does this result in injustice?
Political System --> variation in satisfaction?
(what do you think?)
Choosing Multiple Cases
Comparable Cases
Make them Similar Enough to Compare
But They have to be Different ('Variation') in Some Way
Choose A & ~A
If we say "A-->Z"
Ethnic Cleavages (A) Lead to Intensity of Genocide (Z)
Intense (A) and Moderate (~A) Ethnic Cleavages, say
One Genocide case with Ethnic Cleavages, and One Without
Example: History of Ethnic Cleavages Intensifies Genocide
Choosing Multiple Cases (Continued)
Maybe You Already Know the Outcome
Z and ~Z
Look for Differences in Ethnic Cleavages
My Example: Intensity of Genocide
One is Very Intense, another abated part way through
Were there fewer ethnic cleavages in the case where the genocide abated, or not?
Don't Compare 'apples to oranges'
Differences in Democracies
How Do Democracies Differ from Each Other?
(Speak Up!)
Presidential vs Parliamentary
People
Legislature
Executive
People
Legislature
Executive
Coalitions!
What's Going On?
Single Party
People
Legislature
Executive
Senior Party
Junior Party
People
Legislature
Executive
Less Extreme FP
(Less aggressive/cooperative)
More Extreme FP
(More Cooperative/Aggressive)
Coalition
on average
on average
What could be different?
What things might make this happen?
Possible Explanations
Maybe Junior Parties are more 'Extreme' (Left-Right)?
Maybe Political Compromises Result in more 'extremity' somehow?
It may be harder to 'blame' one party or the other, so they can take bigger risks politically (more 'extreme' policies)?
They 'hijack' Foreign Policy toward cooperation or conflict?
Although it seems the opposite is more likely, doesn't it?
Maybe Coalitions are domestically weaker, so they seek to divert attention from that by doing 'bigger, more extreme' things in foreign policy?
More parties diffuses accountability
Single Parties won a majority, so are more supported
What did we Do?
What about Coalitions was making them more extreme?
What differed between more 'extreme' vs more 'moderate' coalitions?
Called 'Diversionary Theory'
Was it the 'domestic weakness' (diversionary theory)?
Was it 'diffusion of accountability'?
Could Compare weak coalitions to strong coalition
Could compare 2-party coalitions to several-party coalitions
Could also compare weak single-parties to strong single-parties
Found: No differences in number of parties
-10
Conflictual
+10
Cooperative
Why?
Case Studies (Kaarbo, 2012)
Single Party
Coalition
Newspaper articles? Are you serious?!
1966-1989?
Measures of Cooperation/Conflict?
...but...
'Dyadic Peace' suggest democracies don't differ
Different Processes in FP?
Maybe Coalitions Divert Attention through FP?
But Single Parties Exercise Power Directly?
Weaker
More Extreme
Stronger
More Extreme
The truth is we're not sure
Could be several Junior Parties
Junior Party #2
Junior Party #3
I'm back in week 4
'Foreign policy making, rational actors and alternative models'
Goodbye!
See you next time!
Realism & Domestic Politics
Unitary Actor Assumption
Rational Actor Assumption
States Have 'National Interests'
Security Imperative:
'Politics Stops at the Water's Edge
Boring for Foreign Policy!
Can do this for Lots of Areas
Example: Defeat in Total War --> Period of Pacifism
Realism
Precision
Generalisability
Brinberg & McGrath
Controlling or Isolating Causality
Applies Across Populations
As it Happens in Context
The More You Get of One
The Less You Get of the Other Two
Not
Morgenthau/Waltz/Mearsheimer/etc.
You are here!
'Too many immigrants!'
Let's go to war!'
It deals with internal political systems & citizens
Did ethnic cleavages really play a role in the Rwanda Genocide?
Do ethnic cleavages actually cause systematic violence like Genocide?
Do my findings apply to other Genocides than Rwanda?
(Yes, the Morgenthau/Waltz/etc. Realism)
(and kind of gendered too, I think)
But sometimes that can be kind of scary!
Not all Democracies are the same
And War isn't the only thing to explain
Not simply 'War' & 'Peace'
post-election reconciliation, etc.
Problems with this ('Boom goes London, Boom Paris')
Single Parties less Extreme
How could we figure this out?
(and when did the 'state' appear?)
Full transcript