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The Sights and Sounds of Wetlands and Wildlife
Transcript of The Sights and Sounds of Wetlands and Wildlife
The Sights and Sounds of
Wetlands and Wildlife
Forested Swamp Wetland
What do you notice about it?
Coastal Interdunal Swale Wetland
Isolated Vegetated Wetlands
What is a Wetland?
land that is wet
wet - land
different types of wetlands
different types of plants and animals
how animals & plants live together
how animals and plants grow up
how wetlands change naturally
residential & utilities
What do you notice about the trees?
the leaves have fallen
this is what you might hear...
for the different animal sounds,
decaying leaves on the wetland floor (fell last fall)
new leaves give food and shade
you won't hear as many animals in late summer
a lot of water,
this is what you might hear...
the different animal
Is this a wetland?
yes! these ocean areas sometimes get wet
Still a wetland?
Still a wetland
The water in it has frozen.
Basically it's a small temporary pond!
this is what you might hear...
listen for the
This is the same vegetated wetland in the
Yes! It is an ephemeral (temporary) pond area; it is a
and Amanda Fragata
Thanks for Watching
and for taking an interest in the environment
Hatchling wood frog tadpoles
Adult Wood Frogs Mating
Wood Frog Life Cycle
Raft of wood frog egg masses
Wood frog and toad tadpoles
Wood frog tadpole near metamorphosis
Big MAMMALS, like this White Tail Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) may come to wetlands to eat the plants
It eats spotted salamander eggs, if given the chance.
BIRDS like this male Wood Duck (Aix sponsa),
eat vegetation and insects.
A juvenile (baby) Snapping Turtle (chelydra serpentina).
Eastern painted turtle (Chrysemys picta picta).
This REPTILE is a an Eastern Ribbon Snake (Thamnophis sauritus sauritus), and it eats amphibians and other small animals.
Spring Peepers (Pseudacris crucifer or Hyla crucifer). Notice the "X" on its back?
Gray Tree Frog ( Hyla Versicolor) Up to 2", the largest of our two tree frogs, can change color from green to gray - a Massachusetts chameleon. Juveniles are
American Toads (Bufo americanus) mating.
Notice the string of black eggs.
Fowler's Toad (Bufo fowleri)
Often confused with the American toad.
A "Threatened" (very rare) species per MNHESP. It is the only frog or toad in Massachusetts with a vertical pupil.
This is a northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens). Its spots are round like a leopard.
Pickerel Frog (Rana palustris). The spots are rectangular - like a pickle jar,
Green Frog (Rana clamitans melanota). It has a dorsolateral ridge on each side of its back. Sound familiar?
It took two years to grow its hind legs.
It must live in a "permanent" pond wetland.
The (yellow) Spotted Salamander is a mole salamander.
Another mole salamander is this Blue Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma laterale)...
In May and June of the next year the larvae transform into mature land salamanders.
There are two phases, red and lead back for this species.
a male Fairy Shrimp (Eubranchipus vernalis) - a CRUSTACEAN, will become food for larger animals.
The Female Fairy Shrimp empties her egg case onto leaves at the bottom of the fishless Vernal Pool.
What is a Wetland?
Types of Wetlands
This Isopod looks like a pill bug.
a Dragonfly nymph (larva/baby) stage - INSECT
A Damselfly nymph, another INSECT
like the dragonfly
the Log Cabin Caddisfly (larval stage) - eats leaves,
The Water Boatman is a small INSECT that hunts for prey... and gives a nasty bite.
This New England Medicinal Leech is eating wood frog eggs.
These freshwater Fingernail Clams only grow to the size of a fingernail
Be careful as you travel in the streets, at night, during the first warm spring rains of the year.
This Prezi stemmed
from the original slide
presentation provided for educators by the:
These AMPHIBIANs are Wood Frogs (Rana sylvatica) They live in the upland forests or woods.
During the first warm Spring rains, adults leave the dry upland forest to mate in the Isolated Wetlands.
An amplexus (mating) embrace, with the male
Each female lays baseball sized egg masses, each with +/- 100 - 250 individual eggs, within a jellylike substance.
Hatching after a month, they eat the algae covering the egg masses,
The life cycles (egg to tadpole to adult frog) of different amphibians are similar...
The metamorphosis (change) into an adult frog -
It looks like a frog, with a tail...
like a salamander
During the first warm Spring rains (after the ground thaws)
these, mole salamanders leave their borrows in the drier forested
spermatophores, dropped by males at the bottom of Vernal Pools,
Spotted Salamander females lay about 30 to 250 eggs, in jelly-like clusters (about the size of a softball).
In the late summer the larvae will change completely inside and out, into air breathing salamanders,
Also, they grow to about 8 inches long and can live for about 20 years.
in order for the Predacious Diving Beetle to live, it has to kill other animals like his Spring Peeper tadpole
a great example of the Food Web
Photos by the
Vernal Pool Association
, a student project of Reading Memorial High School, Reading, MA
The MNHESP, part of MA Fish & Wildlife, is a sister agency to MassDEP & provided funding for the photos.
Donations can be made on your State Income Tax forms;
The Food Web or Food Cycle is an
this is an Aquatic Flat Snail
Some people fill in wetlands to make room for...
... subdivision roads and houses.
... even if the animals return, it will not be the same!
Some people make wetlands when they blast out rocks from a quarry. So it's not all bad news for the wetland animals...is it?
Leeches also prey on amphians, as yet another example of Food Web interactions
It has suction cups on its toes!
Vertical (cat's eye ) pupil
Eastern Spade Foot Toad (Scaphiopus holbrookii holbrookii)
notice the legs
- completing the life cycle.
Trecking to the Pool
Congressing males and female salamanders
Raft of salamander egg masses
Salamander near metamorphosis
Gills are gone
Notice the grape shaped eggs.
Upland: eggs are laid in the forested uplands - no water needed -
to complete their life cycle
Water Beetle - see the air bubbles stuck to its legs?
... males are beautifully colored, to attract females
Marbled Salamander (Ambystoma opacum)
other species use
sand instead of bits of plants
- for the Novice or Advanced Naturalist
An Introduction to the Wetlands of Massachusetts
Isolated Vegetated Wetland
miscellaneous unnamed sources
= Audio will play
This is a bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and it can grow to be 8 inches. Big frog, big mouth, big appetite.
let us see what can happen to them.
and uses them,
and what lives in them,
Now that you've explored different wetland types in Massachusetts,
Some people dig through wetlands to put in gas pipe lines...
Bigger animals usually eat
Their bodies contain a type of antifreeze that gives them an early bird advantage over other amphibians.
So that's what all the "clucking" is about.
their sizes can
be very different.
Tadpoles change completely (inside and out) into air breathing frogs, then leave the wetland for drier forested uplands.
It's a race to leave the wetland, before it dries up with the
patterns = I.D.
Adult Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma maculatum)
This mole salamander lays
its eggs when there is
in the vernal pool (late summer) ...
Just like the wood frog.
let's see (and listen for) what other animals we can find in the Wetlands of Massachusetts
this emergent (baby frog) is between 7 to 12 weeks old
- the smallest bivalves (2 shells) in North America.
Detritus and broken down leaf litter is taken out of the water by these tiny filter feeders.
"eat - or - be eaten "
As larger adults, they will return to the same
eggs hatch after water fills the wetland (fall).
This REPTILE is a Spotted Turtle (Clemmys guttata)
former rare species - protected under MNHESP
...unless it grows very large (up to 18" shell); eating plants, insects, frogs, some birds and even small mammals.
Note that TADPOLES breathe oxygen like a fish.
Some egg masses may contain 1,500 +/- eggs
They will hatch in about 6 - 8 weeks into tadpoles (also called larvae).
There are several other species of mole salamanders that make the treck to the vernal pools.
The egg brood is deposited before
the pool dries,
But, it actually depends on the definition - of Local, State or Federal authorities.
By late summer the water is gone.
Where do all the animals go?
Eaten by larger animals...
Notice the duckweed in this pond wetland.
then they venture out seeking other food in the vernal pool.
Females are dull brown to look like leaves...
and to distract predators - keeping them away from the nest.
As an adult (2 - 3 years) it will return to the isolated wetland every spring to mate
grass , shrubs & trees along the banks
no trees growing through it,
to the wetland ecosystem
provide food & cover for wetland animals
The ice has melted,
but still no leaves on the trees
externally fertilizing the female's eggs.
Where does the tail go?
Also, it can dig burrows very well.
Amazingly, the life cycle from egg to metamorphosis
takes just two weeks.
No dorsolateral ridges (folds of skin) down its back.
It's a tree frog!
An AMPHIBIAN -
with a life cycle (egg to tadpole to adult)
similar to that of the wood frog.
hind leg & tail
Metamorphosing Bull Frog tadpole
the animals making these
Just check off the box
and it's a rare species per the MNHESP
The larvae grow throughout
even under the ice.
Red Back Salamanders (Plethodon cinereus cinereus)
Wetland or upland species
It eats bacteria, and detritus (decaying organic matter),
they climb out of the water, on a branch,
- the world's smallest mobile home
which also get shredded to make a protective house for themselves
the rains fill the
pools again, the eggs
This one may turn back.
uplands, and walk to the isolated wetland where they were born...even in the snow.
internally fertilizing the eggs
get picked up by females -
wetland annually to complete their life cycle
Where do the animals go?
and it has yellow thighs.
chewing up dead leaves on the pond bottom.
then break out of their skin as an adult
This is the MNHESP Obligate Vernal Pool Certification Process
Federal Army Corps of Engineers
(ACOE) protects "Special Aquatic Sites" that contain amphibian breeding habitat
Federal Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) adopts wetlands via the "Girl Scout - Rain Drop Program"
Certify a Vernal Pool (temporary ponding area used by breeding amphibians), using the
State of Massachusetts MNHESP process ( see also "www.vernalpool.org/" )
Contact the State of
Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection
(MassDEP) about protecting wildlife habitat ( ''www.mass.gov/ " )
Ways to protect Wetlands with amphibian breeding areas
Town Conservation Commission
to see if there is a Local Bylaw that protects Wetlands
words to know
You are here
Notice that Each Wetland Type
has Different VEGETATION
(Grasses, Shrubs & Trees)
Different Animal Class Types (Big to Small)
Not All Wetlands will Have the Same Animals!
It gets Absorbed by the Body!
the hind Legs grow out of the body first!
It is an ANNELID worm.
The salamander larva looks like a metamorphosing frog tadpole, except it has external gills...and it keeps its tail
First the legs will grow,
and then the gills will slowly shrink
into its body
Notice the flecks
and leave the isolated wetland for the drier forested uplands.