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Parts of a cell

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Samantha Finnell

on 4 September 2015

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Transcript of Parts of a cell

PARTS OF A CELL

Mitochondria
By: Sammy Finnell
Centriole
Cell Membrane
Ribosome
Golgi Apparatus
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Nucleus
Lysosome
Vacuole
Cilia & Flagella
Cytoskeleton
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Anatomy:
Function:
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The mitochondria can be found in both plant and animal cells. However, its appearance varies on the cell type. It is a membrane-bound organelle, and has a double membrane.
The mitochondria provides ATP energy needed for cell movement and other places energy is needed. Ultimately, the Mitochondria is the power center of the cell. Mitochondrial also has its own DNA that contains vital information that allows the mitochondria to make the proteins it needs to make energy
The Centriole is found only in the animal cell. The Centriole consists of nine groups of fused Microtubes. There are three Microtubes in each group. The centrioles together are typically located near the nucleus in the centrosome.
Centioles help the organization of the Mitotic spindle,(A structure that segregates Chromosomes), and the final touches of the Cytokinesis. (Process when Cytoplasm splits into two daughter cells).
The Cell membrane can be found in both the plant and animal cell. It's the outer layer of the animal cell, and the second layer of the plant cell. The Cell membrane consists of a double layer of Phospholipids. Or in the plants case, the head of the bilayer.
The cell membrane acts as protective layer (barrier) to the uncontrolled flow of water. The proteins in the cell membrane are found around the holes and help move molecules in and out of the cell.
Ribosomes can be found in both plant and animal cells. (As well as bacteria cells). Are packets of RNA and proteins, and is attached to the nucleus. They can also be found spread about the cell and attatched to the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum.
Ribosomes transfer RNA, and adds individual Amino acid molecules to the protein chains.
The Golgi Apparatus can be found in both animal and plant cells. The Golgi is stacks of layered membrane-bound structures with a single membrane. The membrane surrounds an area of fluid where the complex molecules are stored and changed.
The Golgi is important in the process of packing macromolecules for transport elsewhere in the cell. it also plays a part in the creation of Lysosomes and the transport of lipids through the cell. It also uses simple molecules and combines them to make molecules that are more complex, then packs them into Vesicles.
The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is in both plant and animal cells. It appears "pebbled" by electron microscopy due to the many Ribosomes on its surface, and has a double-membrane.
The function of the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is to assist the manufacture of Lysosomal enzymes and secreted proteins.
The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum can be found in both plant and animal cells. Much like the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum. It appears smooth by electron microscopy. It is found fairly evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm.
The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum is responsible for the production of hormones and other secretory products in a vast network of membrane-bound vesicles.
The Nucleus can be found in both the plant and animal cell and is connected with the Nucleolus. The Nucleus is enclosed in a double membrane and communicates with the surrounding Cytosol. There are pores and spaces for RNA and proteins to pass through .
The Nucleus houses the DNA responsible for producing the cell with its unique characteristics. It commands the cell and aids it in eating, movement, and reproduction.
The Lysosome can be found in both the plant and animal cell, although they are uncommon in plant cells. The structure majorly consists of hydrolytic enzymes.
The hydrolytic enzymes found in Lysosomes are necessary for intracellular digestion and killing bacteria.
The Vacuole can be found in both plant and animal cells. It's a membrane-bound sack that plays certain roles in intracellular digestion and is generally small.
Plays a role in intracellular digestion and the release of cellular waste. It also helps increase cell size and collects water. (Plants may also use them to store water)
The Cytoskeleton can be found in both plant and animal cells. However, the structure, function can be very different, depending on organism and cell type. Eukaryotic cells contain three main kinds of cytoskeletal filaments: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules.
What system?
Function:
Because the Mitochondria is responsible for making ATP energy it's needed where energy is needed. For example, lots of them can be found in the nervous and muscular system because of the amount of energy those systems use.
Physiology:
The Mitochondria is most known for creating ATP energy for the cell. However, they do other things for the cell as well.
1)They are independent units and have their own DNA in Eukaryotic cells.
2)Aids in Apoptosis
3)Stores Calcium
Physiology:

What system?
Function:
In animal cells the centrioles play a major role in cell division but the plant cells have the ability to reproduce even without the centrioles. The centrioles may produce flagella or cilia and the fiber in the tails of sperm cells.
Centrioles are most important in the Reproductive system because they play an important role in the creation of the Mitotic spindle and Cytokinesis.
Physiology:
All cells are held together by the cell membrane. Without it, the cell would be full of water and couldn't function properly. It protects all parts of the cell and only lets certain things in.
What system?
Considering that the Cell membrane is responsible for keeping dangerous things out and only letting certain things in, it can be safe to assume this is the same for the Integumentary system. (Skin) Because like the Cell membrane, the skin works as a water barrier and only allows certain things in such as Vitamin D.
Physiology:
Ribosomes are found in many places around a Eukaryotic cell. They can be found in the Cytosol. Those floating ribosomes make proteins that will be used inside of the cell or the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The attached ribosomes make proteins that will be used inside the cell and proteins made for export out of the cell. There are also ribosomes attached to the nuclear envelope.

What system?:
The closest system I could compare them to would be the Reproductive system because of the transfer of important proteins and RNA.
Physiology:
The Golgi is responsible for storing fluids and sugars for the cell to use at a later time. They also create Lysosomes and store things in Vesicles for additional storage.
What system?:
The most similar system to the Golgi would be the Digestive system, because it's responsible for absorbing nutrients. Similar to the Golgi, storing things the cell needs and giving it to the cell when needed.
Physiology:
The RER is around the nuclear envelope, allowing the movement of molecules through both membranes. When Ribosomes build Amino chains it's pushed into the RER until the proteins are complete, making a Vesicle. From there it can move to the Cell membrane and into intercellular space.
What system?
RER can be highly found in the Digestive system. This is because pancreatic secretory cells are making large amounts of proteins, so they would need a large number of ribosomes to translate tRNA to protein, and lots of rough endoplasmic reticulum to fold the protein.
Physiology:
What system?
The SER could be compared to t different systems of the body. One of them being the Digestive as well as the Endocrine system. For example, in Liver cells SER uses stored Glycogyn to be broken down to glucose and is involved with creating hormones.
The Smooth ER plays a large part in detoxifying organic chemicals and converting them to safer water-soluble products. SER's main purpose is to utilize cell metabolism as well as steroid and hormone production.
Physiology:
The Nucleus is responsible for commanding the cell and ensuring the security of the cell until it dies. There is rarely a time where something happens in the cell and the Nucleus will not know. The nucleus also holds the cells Chromosomes.
What system?
For obvious reasons, the Nucleus can be considered most valuable in the Nervous system, due to its importance in the functioning of the cells. The Nucleus could be considered to be the brain of each cell, sending information and controlling what goes on.
What system?:
Lysosomes can be described as little digestion machines. The enzymes in the Lysosome break down complex molecules that can include complex sugars and proteins. Therefore by comparison they are most likely to be in the Digestive system where the body breaks down food.
Physiology:
The purpose of the lysosome is to digest unwanted materials. They might be used to digest food or break down the cell when it dies. (They are also known to digest living cells at times)
What system?:
Because Vacuoles aid in the release of cellular waste and collects water it's safe to assume it is most important in the Urinary and Digestive system. It regulates cell size and amounts of water, as well as the removal of cellular waste. Very similar to what the Urinary system does.
Physiology:
(In plants they are larger)
Vacuoles store any variety of nutrients a cell might need to survive. They also store waste products so the rest of the cell is protected from contamination.
Both Cilia and Flagella are made up of Microtubules. Cilia and flagella have the same internal structure, the difference is in their length. (Cilia being shorter) Flagella can be found in both plant and animal cells, (and bacteria) where as Cilia is only in animals.
They are both designed either to move the cell itself or to move substances over or around the cell. The purpose of Cilia is to move fluid, mucous, or cells. Cilia and flagella move because of the interactions of a set of Microtubules inside.
What system?:
Physiology:
Cilia and Flagella both work to move the cell or move cell fluids around. Without them the cell could not move or get rid of waste substances nor move toward comfortable temperatures needed in order for the cell to survive.
The system I feel that Cilia is most needed in the Respritory system. The reason for this is that they need to move the dust and mucus out of the lungs. (However in female reproductive organs they move the Ovum to the Ovary and the Ovary to the Uterus)
Physiology:
They play key roles in intracellular transport, the Axoneme of Cilia and Flagella, the Mitotic spindle, and the synthesis of the Cell wall in plants.
They help the cell move and change its shape when instructed to do so. Components of the Cytoskeleton also allow Cilia, Flagella, and Sperm to move. During cell division these components also assist by pulling the daughter chromosomes in the dividing process.
What system?:
The system I think the Cytoskeleton would be most important in would be the Reproductive system. Due to its assistance in cell division and allowing Sperm cells to move.
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