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Era 300-1500 ce
Transcript of Era 300-1500 ce
*The Han Empire falls:
*The Han had ruled China for 400 years. *It was a time of peace and growth, but the Empire fell in 220 CE.
*The Fall of Rome:
*Rome's biggest problem was that they did not have a solid way to pick their leaders. Most leaders took control by force, and most did not stay in power for very long.
*The Muslim faith all starts with the teachings of Muhammad, around 610 CE, when he receives his message from Allah.
*He starts to preach in his hometown of Mecca and quickly gains a following. Some local Arabs did not approve and chased him out.
He starts over in Medina, and gains many Arabs as his followers.
He and his followers then retake Mecca, Muhammad dies 2 year later.
Muslim Empire (cont.):
The capital of the Muslim faith moved around a lot during the period of time known as The Muslim Golden Age. *There was a lot of argument between practicing Muslims about who was "right" caliph to be following.
*Followers of Ali are called SHI'A.
*Followers of Umayyad or Abbasid are known as SUNNI.
Most people were/are Sunni.
*Followers who reject all of the caliphs are called SUFIS. They are often considered to be "Muslim Holy People", and they believe people should have a direct connection with Allah.
*The Mongols were mainly nomadic tribes that lived off of the land and the animals that they herded.
*The Han Dynasty fell b/c of internal political issues, and b/c of invaders from the North.
To deal with the invaders, the Hans passed the rising costs of the military onto the people, many of whom were peasants, who couldn't afford it. Peasant revolts against the taxes began shortly after they started.
*Another major issue was that the
brought much more than just goods from other nations, it brought disease and plagues. Epidemics, like smallpox, spread like wildfire throughout the continent.
In 220, the Han finally set down their swords. China then went into a 400 year period of war.
In a span of 50 years there were 26 Roman Emperor. Only ONE of them did not get murdered, or kill himself!
The Roman gov't raised taxes, which most farmers couldn't afford; so many of them sold their farms and moved to the city to look for work. This led to an extremely high rate of poverty, disease, and increased social unrest.
*The actual size of the empire was way to big to govern effectively; so the decision was made to split Rome into 2 empires.
*The Eastern half, with Byzantine (later called Constaninople) as it's capital, ruled for another 1000 years.
*The Western half was completely taken over by nomadic and Germanic tribes almost immediately.
*After Muhammad dies, the Muslim community appoints ABU BAKR to be the 1st CALIPH.
3 caliphs follow: 1) Umar 2) Uthman 3) Ali
*Each of the Caliphs form their own CALIPHATES, a Muslim state.
*The caliphates work together so that the Muslim states can keep a constant state of peace in the Muslim kingdom.
*The Muslim kingdom soon expanded all the way from India to Spain. *Scholars believe that the Muslims made such good soldiers for 2 reasons:
1) *Their firm belief that Allah was on their side
2) *Their mastery of the camel, for moving great distanc
ell as for combat.
*When the Muslim Empire was at it's largest, it is referred to as DAR AL ISLAM. *It translates as "The House of Islam".
*Muslims were incredibly tolerant of Christians and Jews who lived in areas that they took over. They recognized that both groups were also groups that believed in 1 God. *Muslims referred to Christians and Jews as "People of the Book".
They felt differently about the Hindus though, as Hindus believe in more than one god.
*How Muslims changed the world forever:
*The biggest thing Muslims did the right way was to encourage as much trade as possible with their neighbors. It was genious because they were all trading with one common currency.
*They traded the
people for things like
*Muslim society was doing SO well that they started investing in ways for their people to better their lives.
Large cities, such as Baghdad, were decked out with public baths, parks, gardens, etc.
Huge, ornate buildings started to be built throughout the Muslim Empire. Some were dedicated to worship, some were solely for schooling.
They refined the art of handwriting, calligraphy, to be exact.
Writers such as Rumi wrote beautiful poems and stories that are still referenced daily in our society.
They had such a love for education that they developed algebra so that they could better understand the world around them.
They performed some of the very first surgeries, and were the 1st civilization that we know for sure had a free hospital.
Muslim medical texts later became standard books for medical references in Europe.
Pick 3 of the following facts about Muslim civilization to write in your own notes:
*The Black Death:
Scientists believe that the Black Plague/Black Death started in China and then made it's way East along the Silk Road. *The Black Plague is the 2nd deadliest disease to hit the human population in our history. It killed 50 million people in the 14th century alone. *It killed 1/3 of all Europeans.
*It was called the Black Death because the sores from the disease often took on a blackish hue. *It was also called "bubonic plague" b/c the disease created sores, called BUBOES.
The conditions got so bad b/c people didn't understand where the disease was coming from. They thought the Jews were poisoning the wells, and they believed that you got the disease from breathing in bad smells.
*The biggest conflict the Muslims had was when the Christians decided that they would "take back" the "Holy Land" from the Muslims.
This started in 1095 CE.
*Christians were trying to expel Muslims from all land surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They succeeded.
*What people didn't realize was that the incredibly unclean conditions they lived in was making the plague worse. *The disease came from infected fleas. The fleas were often brought in on rats, who just followed humans around to survive. People initially blamed the rats, before they realized it was actually the flea tht was making them sick.
We still have cases of the plague today!
*The Chinese built the Great Wall to try to keep the Mongols out.
*The leader that is most known from the Mongols is GENGHIS KHAN. His original name was Temujin/Chinggis (I've seen both). Remember that KHAN means leader. The word "genghis" means "universal". *He wanted people to see him as a "UNIVERSAL LEADER".
They first invaded the Chinese, to the South of them, so that they could gain control of the Silk Road. From there, they headed East. (See video)
Genghis Khan was known to be ruthless. It was said that if anyone in the villages they were taking over resisted, he would order that EVERYONE and EVERYTHING in the village be exterminated. He died in 1227 BC. His sons and grandsons picked up where he left off, continuing the conquests.
*The Mongol Empire split into 4 parts, called KHANATES, united, but ran separately. *This period is known as PAX MONGOLICA, which was a lengthy period of peace that happened under the Mongol rule.
This was a rare period of time when people could travel on the Silk Road and not worry about being attacked by thieves. One of those travelers was Marco Polo.
*Let's sum up the unit:
*Trade brought people together, from all around the world.
*Big Empires fell, but new ones rose up right in those same spaces.
*New Empires meant new rulers for those people who were trying to stay in one place. Sometimes it meant a lot of new rulers.
*People started to figure out many new ways to treat disease during this time period.
*By this point in history, humans are ALREADY over-using the earth's resources. They are over-fishing, cutting too many trees (deforestation).
Yes, now you can turn these in.