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Expressive texts - Short Stories

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Natasha Ravyse

on 6 August 2013

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Transcript of Expressive texts - Short Stories

Upon completion of this study section, you must be able to:

> Identify literary devices in a short story;
> Define the literary devices in a short story;
> Demonstrate how literary devices serve to convey meaning in short stories.
Usually the short story contains a single theme and deals with a small number of incidents and as a result, it comes rapidly to the point.

The plot is simple and deals with a specific event.

The focus is on the "twist" in the story rather than on the chain of events. It contains few characters and the focus can be on a specific character in the story
When analysing a short story, it is important to focus on the following:

> Title > Setting
> Characters > Plot
> Narrative > Theme
> Style > Tone
> Mood/atmosphere > Register
> Intention/purpose
Please prepare study unit 3.1: Reports.
After our class discussion about the short story we have just heard, complete the questions (provided on e-fundi) for homework and hand it in on the due date provided by your lecturer.
Study Unit 2.2
Short Stories
Short Stories
Study Unit Outcomes
A short story is a form of narrative prose ranging in length from a few hundred words to 7000 or 8000 words.

In its shortest form, the short story borders on the anecdote - in its longest form it borders on the novella.

The short story has its origins in the tradition of oral story-telling.
The short story
The short story
Analysing a short story
Definitions for concepts used in short stories:
Definitions for concepts used in short stories:
Definitions for concepts used in short stories:
In the Withaak's Shade - Herman Charles Bosman
For next week:
Joint assignment - Part 2
A short and amusing or interesting story about a real incident or person.
A short novel or long short story
The title introduces the short story to the reader and can sometimes tell you what the story is about.
The setting is the place where the story is set/occurs. Setting is important for meaning, because it carries a meaning of its own.

Aspects such as the
time, place and culture
in which the action takes place, play an important role and form part of setting.

The characters'
physical and mental
environments form part of the setting too.
Characters (can also be animals) are analysed on three levels:

1) The
can describe the character.

2) One can analyse the
character's actions, speech and thoughts

3) One can analyse the way in which the
other characters respond to a character
First-person narrator: The story is told from the protagonists' (main character) point-of-view.

Second person point of view: The narrator tells the story to another character using "you"; the story is being told through the addressee's point of view.

Third-person (omniscient) narrator: An objective narrator (not involved in the story) who provides a birds-eye-view or insight into all the characters' thoughts, actions and emotions in the story.

Story and Plot
refers to the events in chronological order (time). In other words, the way events pan out according to the principles of time.
refers to the writer's arrangement of the events in the story. Therefore the plot may jump from present to past to future
The theme is the
central idea and message
of the short story as conveyed by the writer.

The theme is NOT what the story is about (this is the topic).

Themes deal with
certain issues

Usually the theme drives the plot and relates strongly to the setting and the characters.
Style refers to the manner in which the author
makes use of words
to convey his ideas and feelings through aspects such as:

> Diction (word choice);
> Sentence structure (complex, simple, etc.);
> Figures of speech (satire, irony, etc.).

Tone reveals the author's
views and attitudes
towards the audience and the subject matter:

- A
formal tone
could create distance
- while a more
informal tone
could create an atmosphere of friendliness.
Mood/atmosphere refers to the emotions that one experiences in the work or the reflection of the author's emotions in the work.

Mood/atmosphere is established using various techniques:
> Figures of speech
> Diction
> Tone
Register refers to the
level of formality
of the writing and the language.

Style, tone and word choice
contribute to the appropriateness of the register.
Intention and purpose relate to the
why the author created a certain work.

Did he/she for example want to
the audience or did he/she want to
the audience, or to
on a certain social, economic, political situation?
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