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FA16_Ch. 13: The Television Industry
Transcript of FA16_Ch. 13: The Television Industry
= the licensing of mass media material to outlets on a market-by-market basis.
Subscription cable and satellite services
Online and mobile platforms
= a broadcast television station that supports itself financially by selling time on its airwaves to advertisers.
Big Four Networks
Multiple System Owner (MSO)
A cable television firm that owns two or more cable television systems.
Independent Broadcast Station
The Television Industry
=a broadcast television station that does not receive financial support from advertisers, but rather support themselves through listener donations, private foundation funds, and from commercial firms in return for mentioning the firm or its products in announcements during programming.
= an organization that distributes television programs to its affiliated, or owned, stations that agree to carry a substantial amount of the network's material on an ongoing basis.
The four largest television networks:
Broadcast television stations that are owned and operated by a network that often provides a regular schedule of programming material for broadcast
= local broadcast television stations that are not owned by broadcast networks and yet transmit the network's programs on a daily basis.
= a collection of broadcast television stations owned by a single company.
A station not affiliated with the one of the Big Four networks
Short audiovisual pieces that call attention to advertisers' products or services.
The Satellite Business
Production in the Television Industry
Covering the Cost
Covering the Cost
Producing Broadcast Channel Lineups
Channel's Intended Audience
Preparing a Schedule
Satellite television= Programming that comes directly to the home from a satellite orbiting the earth.
Line up= the menu of channels that a cable television system offers potential subscribers.
Format= a collection of elements that constitutes a channel's recognizable personality or "style."
Video on Demand= a television viewing technology whereby a customer uses the remote control to navigate to a menu or program s/he wants to watch; unlike pay-per-view, in which the customer has to wait for the show to appear at a certain time, the program immediately appears for viewing.
Head end= a cable system's regional delivery location
High-definition television (HDTV)= a display technology that provides picture quality similar to that of a 35mm movie, with sound quality similar to that of today's companct discs.
Channel Multiplexing= sending multiple signals or streams of information at the same time, in the form of a single complex signal and then recovering the separate signal at the receiving end.
Four interrelated consideration:
The available pool of viewers
The interest of sponsors
The cost of relvant programming
Household ratings: rating that represent the number of households in which the channel was turned on, compared to the total nuber of households.
People ratings= the demographic categories of people within each household
Household share = the number of households in which the channel was turned on compared with the number of TV-owning households in the area where the channel could be viewed.
Reach: the percentage of the entire target audience to which a media outlet will circulate.
National ratings points = Each point represents 1,142,000 homes in 2012, roughly 1% of U.S. homes with a TV.
Average commercial minute: Nielsen's reporting standards for determining ratings and household viewing during commercial; the information gives advertisers measurements not just for each program taken as a whole, but also for the commercials that run during programs.
C3 standars: Nielsen technique of measuring the average commercial minute of a program by including in the ratings people who recorded commercials on DVRs and viewed them within a three-day period.
License fees= The cost that particular networks charge exhibitors for carrying the networkd lineup in the exhibitors' cable or satellite systems.
Tiering= the stragety by which different levels of television programming are priced differently.
Pay-per-view (PPV)= a transaction in which cable providers, satelllite companies, or telco companies charge the customer for viewing individual programs.
The size and desirability of a program’s audience helps determine how much the network can charge advertisers for time.
Dayparts, or segments of the day, are a critical part of putting together a schedule.
TV Networks use many strategies to keep audiences tuned in:
Pitch= brief summary of a program idea.
Treatment= a multi-page elaboration of a producer's initial pitch to network programming executives; the document describes the proposed show's setup and the way in which it relates to previous popular series.
Concept testing= research commissioned by network executives in order to determine whether the format of a proposed series appeals to members of the target audience.
Exhibition in the Television Industry
Local stations, cable systems, satellite delivery, wired phone and wireless phone companies take of the role of exhibitor.
Local broadcasters face increased competition from the cable, satellite, internet, and even mobile phone businesses.
Meanwhile, network affiliates are worried about ABC, CBS, Fox, and NBC's ability to grab the the lion's share of the U.S. television audience through traditional means..
* All information/ images derived from Turow, Media Today, 4th & 5th editions
* 1923: Vladimir Zworykin and the iconoscope
* 1926: Zworykin devised a receiving unit called a kinescope
* 1925: John Logie Baird
* 1884: Paul Nipkow developed “Nipkow Discs” for the transmission of visual scenes
* FCC called upon to systematize broadcasting equipment
* 1942: Wartime freeze on television
* 1948 Freeze ended with the creation of:
- A table of channel assignments
- The FCC opened up new channels on
ultra-high frequency (UHF)
- FCC set standards regarding color TV
- 242 channels set aside for
VHF vs. UHF signals
EX: NPR and the MacArthur Foundation
** The Big 4 networks are also vertically integrated conglomerates.
Each company has divisions that produce news, sports, sitcoms, dramas, and other programming.
Each company also owns stations in the biggest cities – these outlets are exhibition anchors for their respective networks.
Distribution in the Television Industry
Broadcast TV networks are involved in both production and distribution.
Local stations do not rely wholly on the networks, and will often air local content.
If producers fail to place reruns on local stations, cable and satellite providers have been willing purchasers of syndicated content.
* In the history of TV, the television emerged followed the commercial structure developed by radio.
* The rise of cable led to audience fragmentation and increased competition by the big four (ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox) to attract audience shares.
* Today, watching “TV” no longer means watching to the box in your living room or bedroom...digital convergence has changed what “TV” means.
* Philo Farnsworth and the “image dissector”
* 1927: Farnsworth’s first picture transmitted
* 1937: 17 experimental stations
* April 1938: Television sets sold in department stores
* 1939: New York World’s Fair
* Early fears?
* TV continued to grow; advertising to affluent audiences and family values
* Growth of TV led to creation of cable
* 1948: Started as community antennae television service, to reach small cities with poor broadcast signals
* Television borrowed from radio
* Performed live
* 1950: “My Favorite Husband”; 1951: "I Love Lucy” changed the industry
* 1950s: the Golden Age of Television disrupted by the “Quizling” scandals