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IB TOK presentation 11

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Masako Uchida

on 16 September 2014

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Transcript of IB TOK presentation 11

What is the Value of a Work of Art?
Our Knowledge questions
Q1) What is the importance of form in artwork?
Q2) Is it possible that aesthetic value is something universal - a fact about human beings?
Q3) Are arts a system of knowledge?
Q1) What is the importance of form in artwork?
Q1) What is the importance of form in artwork?
Are arts a system of knowledge?
Q2) Is it possible that aesthetic value is something universal - a fact about human beings?
Which woman do you think is more attractive?
Well.. Who knows what you prefer?
Humans have different values/perceptions of beauty
Cultural background
Can only experts determine "true beauty"?
Experts can only determine the overall values of beauty
Not the values for each individual
What is form?
"Form" has a lot of meanings
In this presentation I will look "Form" as..
a category of things distinguished by some common characteristic or quality. (Merriam Webster Dictionary)
eg) Art--> a painting, sculpture
Music--> rap music, pop music, classical music
Literature--> screen plays, poems, stories

Real Life Situation
Each individual has different views and opinions of values of art.
Eg) Picasso's art

Value of art DEPENDS on each person.

Changing forms of art can change the value.
As it is a completely different piece of art work, the audience may have different opinions.
Eg) Mona Lisa--> sculpture.
Connection between Knowledge Question and Real- life situation- Subjectively
Real Life Situation
On the other hand...
By looking at its monetary value we can determine which art form is better.
Mona Lisa- no current monetary value, but when valued for insurance purposes in 1962 at $100 million, which is approximately
in 2011.
The Thinker- (Daily Mail) Sold for
million in New York.
--> Mona Lisa is better as it is more valuable my looking at its monetary value.

Real Life Situation
By looking at the sales rate we can determine which art form is better too.
eg) Harry Potter series
TOTAL Movie Sales--> $7,216,000,000
TOTAL Book Sales --> $7,743,000,000
THEREFORE, book is better as a form of art as the value is higher.
eg) Twilight Series
Which is better?

Connections- OBJECTIVELY
photographs or other visual representations in a printed publication. (Free Dictionary Online )
Books are better form of art.

the creation of beautiful or significant things and works produced by human creative skill and imagination (Oxford dictionary)
Both books and movies are good form of art.
Depending on the definition, we can determine which form of art is better and more valuable.
By changing forms it can change into a totally different piece of artwork even though it has the same "BASE".
It can affect:
the creator of the artwork
the audience
eg) One likes Mona Lisa as a painting, but if it is as a sculpture one doesn't like it.
Change the sales rate and monetary value
eg) Movie and books
Aesthetic value: A judgment of value based on the appearance of an object and the emotional responses it evokes.
Florence Colgate:
UK based 18 year old girl
Do you consider her as: "
The most beautiful woman on earth
as experts say?
Miranda Kerr:
Famous model
So.. can we now say that the Golden ratio always apply to every "beautiful face"?
Florence Colgate:
According to extensive studies of 'attractiveness', researchers believe the 'beauty' of a woman's face can be summed up in a series of simple ratios.

A 'perfect' face =>
Distance between the pupils of just under half (46%) of the width of the whole face from ear to ear -
Florence's ratio is 44 %
Distance between eyes and mouth should be just over a third (36%) of the overall length from hairline to chin -
Florence's face has 32.8% ratio

Researchers say... that Florence's
youthful, feminine features
, such as her large eyes, high cheekbones, and full lips are subconscious t signs of
fertility, health and good genes
Do you consider her as: "
The most beautiful woman on earth"
as most people think?
Each individual has a different value for beauty based on cultural background and experience
The criteria for beauty can be somewhat similar
No one knows the true "true beauty"
Even experts does not know the true "true beauty"
Common attribution
Depends on..
Age group
Aesthetic relativism
Applying to other subjects
The Golden Ratio:
Beauty Criteria:
Structure = Golden ratio (length and width)
Other facial structures = large eyes, full lips, high cheek bones, etc
Symmetry= A sign of good genes=beauty
What determines the attractiveness of a face?
Golden ratio (phi) : 1: 1.618....
Angelina Jolie
Even experts cannot determine "true beauty" because...
N0. We can't.
Health and skin colour
Weight (facial fat)
Masculinity and Femininity
Eye gaze and head posture (subtle facial cues)
What is "true beauty"? Does it exist?
"True beauty" does not exist..
We all have dissimilar criterion's for beauty
Golden ratio only refers to physical beauty
Qualities of mind and soul: love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control
Division of vote => Aesthetic value is NOT universal
Florence => You are possibly attracted to a face with a perfect set of geometric measurements. Scientists would agree to your decision
Miranda => You are possibly attracted to symmetrical faces who has a cute smile with a lovable character
It is misleading to say that every beautiful woman on earth has the golden ratio
Aesthetic Value is NOT universal, but there are common values that we all agree.
Arts and Design
Mathematics (geometry)
Photo composition
Stock market and FOREX analysis
Nature and Life
The philosophical view that the judgement of beauty is relative to different individuals and/or cultures and that there are no universal criteria of beauty.
Psychology contradicts Aesthetic relativism
In studies of facial attractiveness, there seems to be wide cross-cultural agreement as to what constitutes beauty in the human face.
"a set of connected things or parts forming a complex whole, in particular."-Google dictionary
Real-life situation
Value depends on each person
BUT there are similarities in what we value
Value of a work of art can be determined in numerous ways:
-monetary value
-personal preference
-popularity of artist
monetary value
cultural value
more authentic=more valuable
knowledge gained through a system of artwork can place a value on art works
knowledge gained through a system of artwork can place
Sense Perception
Relativism = a thesis that all points of view are equally valid.
Culinary Art
Are the arts a system of knowledge?
The definition of art and knowledge is different for everyone.

The value of a work of art changes for every person. It also depends on what kind of knowledge one can gain from it.
Real life situation (subjectively thinking)
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