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Manuscripts

History Of Manuscripts
by

Ashlea Rondozai

on 30 April 2012

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Transcript of Manuscripts

A manuscript or handwrite is written information that has been manually created by one or more people, such as a hand-written letter, as opposed to being printed or reproduced some other way. The term may also be used for information that is hand-recorded in other ways than writing, for example inscriptions that are chiselled upon a hard material or scratched as with a knife point in plaster or with a stylus on a waxed tablet, or are in cuneiform writing, impressed with a pointed stylus in a flat tablet of unbaked clay. The word manuscript derives from the Medieval Latin manuscriptum, We are going to focus on the Manuscript "The Book Of Durrow" and"The Book Of Kells". The Book of Durrow is a 7th century illuminated manuscript written in a dignified Irish majuscule (large letter) script. Similar to the Book of Kells in style of illumination, it also contains the four gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The Book of Durrow contains outstanding examples of colourful ornament; the colours are red, green and yellow. The opening pages of Mark and Luke and the ‘carpet’ pages with their trumpet and spiral patterns are especially beautiful. St Mark Symbol Page. An eastern influence is evident in the broad ribbon interlacing in the Book of Durrow. We can also see Anglo-Saxon features in the lively rhythm of designs that move from abstract and linear to animal-headed intertwining ribbons. The portraits were deliberately stylized and the four evangelists are depicted magnificently, framed and coloured, as man, lion, calf and eagle. The Book of Durrow is housed at Trinity College, in Dublin, Ireland. Carpet Page from the beginning of st john's
Gospel. This page has examples of the beautiful
animal interlace found in the Book. Gospel Book which brings togeather many of the influences that were flowing into ireland in the mid-seventh century. The "Carpet" page, a Copic influence, is first seen here. Interlace is also introduced and wider range of colours. Opening Words of st Mark's gospel. Interlace and
Zoomorphs decorate the capital letters at the opening of each gospel Letter of the Text is enlarged and decorated, with following letters surrounded by dots. Yellow is used to fill in some capital letters. Open Vellum balances intensely decorated areas. Other Motifs include spirals, triskeles, ribbon plaits and circular knots in the carpet pages and borders around the evangelists. St Mathew symbol page. The Cross fertilisation of ideas between crafts can be seen in the similarity between this manuscripts figure and figures from the high crosses. the decoration of the cloak also has echoes in millefiori enamel decoration in metalwork The origins of manuscripts are very hard to pin
down with certaintly. So much traffic took place
between Ireland, Britain and monasteries on the
continent that it is hard to tell if a book was written in ireland or in an irish monastery aboard. styles are so close that they would have to be looked at together. The Lichfield Gospels and the book of lindisfarne in england and st gall gospels in switzerland are, sumptuously decorated codices in the irish or closely related style.they have portaits of the evangelists, carpet pages and decorated initials with a wider range of colours and greater use of animal interlace. The Book Of Kells Is the outstanding irish manuscript. Work on the book began on Lona(Island). It was then brought to kells when the monks transferred there 802.It is a large Condex, desighned to decorate the altar on ceremonial occasions. The Book is written on thick vellum in formal majuscule script
The Language is an irish mixed latin not pure Vulgate. It is not always easily saparted and many copyists errors and spelling mistakes. Several scribes probably set work on the book simultaneously, under the direction of the master scribe or abbot. There is certainly evidence of many hands at work, from stumbling apprentices to some of the most brilloiant illuminators in the world. The colours used in the decorated pages of the book
of kells are red, yellow, blue, purple and green, with black and brown used for line and to darken backgrounds. Red is made from red lead Yellow from Mineral called Orpiment
Which was mixed with egg whites. Green comes form Copper Purple was made from Mediterranean Plants Blue from a semi-precious stone called lapis lazuli found in Asia Minor. This Colours were applied with
reed or quill pens and vaiety of palette
Knife blades. Francoise Henry identifies four main artist. One he calls the "Goldsmith" . He is responsible for the chi-rho. The cruciform, eight-circle, carpet page and intial pages of the gospels, except the Ouoniam of st John. HIS WORK boldly outlined in black with internal spirals,plaits,interlace and coils in variety of colours. The "Portraits" the second artist, is responsible for two pictures of Evangelists. He uses the same elements of decoration as Goldsmith, Plus vegetal scroll. Symmetry is one of the features of this artist's work, with elements balanced throughout the composition. The Human Figure in a stylised form is the main theme of these works, with decoration as a secondary though important component. The "Illustrator" is responsible for the most dramatic work in the Book Of Kells. His figures are more animated and his colours are striking in his use of strong contrasts to great effect. His contribution includes the arrest of Christ,Virgin and Child Symbols of the Evangelists in St John and "Tunc Crucifixerant" Page. The Forth major Contributor painted the " Nativitas Christi" Page and page of the canons His Main contributoin was in the small
capitals, the animals between the lines,
The border of the Genealogy and other incidental
decorations. His Treatment is humorous and observant. The little animals play among the text
and give much of the unique atmosphere to the book. The Book Of Kells is the finest Know irish manuscript. The Grandeur of its scale and layout in not found in other ooks. It makes use of fault range if colour and all the elements of design then Known in Ireland. A verse in the margin of Priscian Grammar book, Written in the Armagh style and now in the Library of St Gall, reads " "Fierce and wild is the wind tonight; On Such a night as this i take my ease; Fierce Northmen only course the quiet seas." The Book of Armagh gives us some ides of how a more everyday copy of the Gospels Looked" The Minuscule" text has decorated capitals, But colours is used even on the pages with the symbols of th Evangelists. THANK YOU The End
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