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Essere e libertà
Transcript of Essere e libertà
as to Sartre's method, he is in the habit of making unfounded assertions! This quote may go for his existentialism, but not for everyone’s.
“Existentialism isn't so atheistic that it wears itself out showing that God doesn't exist. Rather, it declares that even if God did exist, that would change nothing.” pure brute physical data
bound to itself
perfectly identical to itself,
without holes or slits,
a sort of paramedian being
it is what is
it implies no negation
cannot maintain any relation
neither with itself nor with others
"otherness, will never becomes like another" it is "refolding ever more adhesively in on itself"
does not have an inside or an outside
it is things, objects, the world, pure res
Disgustingly, repugnantly superabundant. Too sickeningly much! above all consciousness which distinguishes man from all other beings
the not closed being
that which is what it is not and is not what it is
as opposed to the being in itself, which is what it is, the being for itself, must be what it is,
two fundamental aspects Negativity Liberty the description of man as negativity, that is as unity of being and nonbeing, is confirmed by the analysis of liberty as the fountainhead of the nothing.
man is free and his freedom is a spring from which flows the nothing, because it is the capacity to say no.
the possibility of negating choices A and B by choosing C
man is condemned to choosing and specifically to negating, since every choice implies a negation of the other option inasmuch as it is a mix of being and nonbeing
it is inasmuch as it is consciousness, but is not in as much as it is consciousness of something other than itself
consciousness does not have anything substantial about it but is pure appearance
it not exist but insofar as it appears
man is no more than a project
does not exist more than in the measure that he realizes something.
it only exists being conscious of something
in opposition to the being in itself, which is tranquil and without questions, the being for itself is
insecure with respect to itself
always open to the not I, it is open to negativity The Absurdity of God perfect consciousness, full possession of himself, selfconsciousness, free, therefore an in se, per se, in se
this monstrous union of in-se/per-se in a being that is neither in se, nor per se, but is nonetheless perfect like the in se, and conscious like the per se, is impossible and contradictory
God, in fact, is a being that is what it is, inasmuch as all positivity and perfection, and at the same time a being that is not what it is, as self-consciousness and free.
The hypothesis of God is impossible.
God does not exist! IN SE PER SE IN SE Man as History Ortega Camus Heidegger ~ # % Nature is out there, but Man is a process a) in-der-Welt-sein b) Sein-zum-Tode Authenticity The conscious self is seen as coming to terms with being in a material world and with encountering external forces and influences which are very different from itself; authenticity is one way in which the self acts and changes in response to these pressures. Happiness The Absurd Death Universal - Human Nature Singular - Human Person Incarnate Spirit Mans Rational nature is the foundation of the natural law Biologism Relativism and Situation Ethics Resents as moral laws what are really only biological laws Our culture recognizes no other value than human freedom, and an ethics of situation and subjectivity
liberty creates values
liberty absolutized along with each individual’s decisions.
this leads of course to libertinism, the abuse of political power etc.
if freedom is the only criteria of goodness, than any free act is good inasmuch as it is free, and any other act indifferent. This law is inscribed in the heart of man, and cannot be denied.
non scripta, sed nata lex! Act Potency Aristotelian / Thomistic Philosophy of Being Substance Accidental Forms Essence Esse Existent Substance Ens Form The Operation Existent Essence Matter Supositum Veritatis Splendor 65 El Hombre se hace a sí mismo Man is not his body or his spirit, because these are things. Man is not a thing but a drama, an event.
Man makes himself like this, he constructs himself, he is his own cause, he invents his own possibilities.
The only thing fixed in his life is his own instability
His nature dos not change, only the circumstances of his life change substantially
A deus occasionatus (an occasion of God - that is, like the Divine, if it were to be caught in a finite moment) like God, a creator, above all a self creator, but limited by the occasion. Hombre como Historia El hombre es una razón histórica. La historia que ha de estudiar el verdadero ser del hombre, lo que le ha pasado y cuál ha sido la trayectoria de su experiencia, del hombre peregrino del ser, inmigrante sustancial. No hay límites en lo que el hombre puede ser. El único límite a las posibilidades es el pasado, pero la experiencia ayuda al hombre futuro. El que un ser tenga historia que lo cambie, le hace progresar a priori, puede afirmar el progreso de la vida y a posteriori sabremos si es bueno o malo.
El pasado está en el hombre, es el hombre, es su vida. El hombre necesita una nueva realidad, una nueva revelación que le invada y le inunde, no una teoría que sea invención de hombres.
El hombre se encuentra a sí mismo como historia. La historia tiene una única y original razón, no es una razón extra histórica, sino en la historia, lo que el hombre ha ido construyendo, la sustantiva razón, la revelación de una realidad trascendente a las teorías del hombre. Man's Rational Nature Through this nature man is self-conscious and self determining. And it is through this nature that man is inter-related, though distinct from, extra-mental reality. Man can know all things, can become them in act, can transcend them thanks to his spiritual dimension. How are Man's Intellect and will open to the absolute? Intelligence seeks the absolute and infinite truth
The will seeks unlimited and absolute good.
Man is Quodammodo omnia
His highest dynamism that overcome the static
Man realizes himself through his free work
But only in light of these goals Nature Freedom Incarnate Spirit This third part of Chapter Two treats the relationship between free choices of specific kinds of acts (e.g., to commit adultery) and a person’s "fundamental option for or against the Good, for or against the Truth, and ultimately for or against God"
But he goes on to note that some theologians today "have proposed an even more radical revision of the relationship between person and acts. These theologians relocate self-determination from the free choices we make every day, including fundamental commitments, to a "fundamental option.., whereby the person makes an overall self-determination" (n. 65). A distinction "thus comes to be introduced between the fundamental option and deliberate choices of a concrete kind of behavior. The conclusion to which this eventually leads is that the properly moral assessment of the person is reserved to his fundamental option, prescinding . . . from his choice of particular actions, of concrete kinds of behavior" Lucas on Existentialists Man is not what he is, but what he does
Other beings are supposed to be something that already acts, but in the case of man he must act and so make himself to be, not only economically, but also metaphysically, man has to construct his life.
The person cannot be conceived as a substance, but only a structured set of acts, which continually produces itself. Heidegger's replacement for terms such as subject, object, consciousness, and world. For him, the split of things into subject/object, as we find in the Western tradition and even in our language, must be overcome
At the most basic level of being-in-the-world, Heidegger notes that there is always a mood, a mood that "assails us" in our unreflecting devotion to the world.
A mood comes neither from the "outside" nor from the "inside," but arises from being-in-the-world. One may turn away from a mood, but that is only to another mood; it is part of our facticity.
Only with a mood are we permitted to encounter things in the world. Dasein (a co-term for being-in-the-world) has an openness to the world that is constituted by the attunement of a mood or state of mind.
As such, Dasein is a "thrown" "projection" (geworfen Entwurf), projecting itself onto the possibilities that lie before it or may be hidden, and interpreting and understanding the world in terms of possibilities. Being-toward-death is not an orientation that brings Dasein closer to its end, in terms of clinical death, but is rather a way of being.
Heideggerian terminology refers to a process of growing through the world where a certain foresight guides the Dasein towards gaining an authentic perspective.
It is provided by dread or death. In the analysis of time, it is revealed as a threefold condition of Being. Time, the present and the notion of the "eternal", are modes of temporality.
Death is that possibility which is the absolute impossibility of Dasein. Fount of law Not in as much as nature, but in as much as spiritual That is in as much as open to and participating in the Divine Logos Essere Aperta Nature and openness are not two distinct realities, diverse and opposed to each other, in man. Human nature is a unity in which all of man participates fully. In his bodiliness is also the dignity of a subject. There are no 'pre-moral, physical goods' for man. To do violence to the body is to do violence to the spirit. Dynamic Man is at the same time reality, dynamism, data and project Agire sequitur esse And the way of being determines the act, not the other way around! This is the foundation of objective morality! man has a permanent substantial constitution that underlies his accidents and acts!